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Table 2 Summary of confirmed and possible cases of rickettsial infection, Ontario, Canada (2013–2018)

From: Assessing human exposure to spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae in Ontario, Canada (2013–2018): a retrospective, cross-sectional study

Variable Spotted fever group rickettsiaea Typhus group rickettsiae Unspecified Rickettsia infection
Total cases, n 20 7 19
Female, n (%) 13 (65.0) 3 (42.9) 11 (57.9)
Age, mean ± SE (range) 33.3 ± 4.05 (1–62) 45.3 ± 7.66 (19–72) 43.3 ± 5.00 (7–84)
IFA IgG titer, n
 1:64 16 5 n/a
 1:128 2 1 n/a
 1:256 2 1 n/a
IFA SFGR/TGR IgG titers
 1:64/1:64 n/a n/a 5
 1:64/1:128 n/a n/a 1
 1:128/1:64 n/a n/a 4
 1:128/1:128 n/a n/a 5
 1:128/1:256 n/a n/a 2
 1:256/1:128 n/a n/a 1
 1:256/1:256 n/a n/a 1
Year of onset, n
 2013 0 0 1
 2014 0 1 1
 2015 3 1 2
 2016 0 2 6
 2017 6 3 4
 2018 11 0 5
Signs and symptoms, n (%)b
 Fever 20 (100.0) 7 (100.0) 19 (100.0)
 Headache 10 (50.0) 2 (28.6) 9 (47.4)
 Rash (maculopapular) 6 (30.0) 1 (14.3) 2 (10.5)
 Gastrointestinal complaints 5 (25.0) 3 (42.9) 6 (31.6)
 Rash (vesicular) 4 (20.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (10.5)
 Encephalitis/meningitis 4 (20.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (15.8)
 Respiratory complaints 3 (15.0) 1 (14.3) 3 (15.8)
 Rash (not described) 2 (10.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (10.5)
 Tick bite 2 (10.0) 1 (14.3) 0 (0.0)
 Fatigue 1 (5.0) 1 (14.3) 7 (36.8)
 Malaise/unwell 1 (5.0) 1 (14.3) 3 (15.8)
 Arthralgia/arthritis 0 (0.0) 1 (14.3) 2 (10.5)
 Chills 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (5.3)
 Elevated liver enzymes 0 (0.0) 1 (14.3) 0 (0.0)
 Myalgia/body aches 0 (0.0) 1 (14.3) 2 (10.5)
  1. Abbreviations: IFA immunofluorescent assay, n/a not applicable, SFGR spotted fever group rickettsiae, TGR typhus group rickettsiae
  2. a Includes a single confirmed SFGR case
  3. b All cases had evidence of reported fever, as this sign was required for confirmed and possible case classifications. Some cases have > 1 additional sign or symptom