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Table 2 Factors associated with CD4+ T cells secreting cytokines in the univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis

From: Association among cytokine profiles of innate and adaptive immune responses and clinical-virological features in untreated patients with chronic hepatitis B

Variable CD4_IFN-γ CD4_TNF-α CD4_IL-2
Univariate (raw effects) Multivariate (adjusted effects) Univariate (raw effects) Multivariate (adjusted effects) Univariate (raw effects) Multivariate (adjusted effects)
B (95% CI) P Adjusted B (95% CI) Adjusted P B (95% CI) P Adjusted B (95% CI) Adjusted P B (95% CI) P Adjusted B (95% CI) Adjusted P
Age (≥ 25 vs <  25 years) 4.26 (1.15, 7.36) 0.008 4.09 (0.94, 7.24) 0.011 5.47 (−0.99, 11.93) 0.097 5.76 (− 0.52, 12.04) 0.072 0.11 (− 0.36, 0.58) 0.635 0.09 (− 0.42, 0.59) 0.729
Gender (Male ve Female) 2.35 (− 0.6, 5.3) 0.118 2.38 (− 0.55, 5.31) 0.110 5.48 (− 0.55, 11.52) 0.075 6.42 (0.57, 12.26) 0.032 0.22 (−0.22, 0.65) 0.334 0.13 (−0.34, 0.6) 0.586
Family History (Yes vs No) 0.56 (−2.14, 3.26) 0.684 0.55 (− 2.41, 3.51) 0.714 1.96 (−3.57, 7.48) 0.485 0.03 (−5.87, 5.94) 0.991 0.01 (−0.38, 0.41) 0.943 −0.03 (− 0.5, 0.44) 0.903
Vertical Transmission (Yes vs No) −1.34 (−5, 2.33) 0.472 − 1.42 (− 5.41, 2.57) 0.483 2.05 (− 5.47, 9.57) 0.591 1.00 (−6.96, 8.97) 0.804 −0.01 (− 0.56, 0.53) 0.961 − 0.03 (− 0.67, 0.61) 0.931
Infection Time (≥ 20 vs <  20 years) −0.2 (−4.01, 3.6) 0.917 −1.88 (− 5.74, 1.98) 0.336 0.85 (− 6.95, 8.64) 0.831 − 1.49 (−9.19, 6.2) 0.702 − 0.08 (− 0.65, 0.48) 0.769 −0.16 (− 0.77, 0.46) 0.616
Log HBsAg 0.60 (− 1.54, 2.75) 0.577 0.79 (− 1.35, 2.93) 0.466 0.004 (− 4.39–4.40) 0.999 0.42 (− 3.85, 4.68) 0.848 0.08 (− 0.24, 0.40) 0.621 0.01 (− 0.33, 0.36) 0.938
Log HBV DNA 0.09 (−0.45, 0.63) 0.741 −0.99 (− 2.09, 0.11) 0.078 1.45 (0.36–2.54) 0.010 −0.74 (− 2.94, 1.45) 0.505 0.26 (− 0.2, 0.72) 0.260 − 0.06 (− 0.24, 0.11) 0.483
HBeAg (Positive vs Negative) 1.18 (− 1.51, 3.87) 0.387 4.30 (− 0.10, 8.70) 0.055 7.18 (1.77, 12.58) 0.010 8.25 (−0.53, 17.03) 0.065 −0.22 (− 0.62, 0.17) 0.266 − 0.01 (− 0.72, 0.69) 0.969
ALT (<  2 ULN is the reference group)
 ≥ 2 & < 5 ULN 6.16 (2.76, 9.56) 0.000 6.77 (3.08, 10.46) 0.000 14.41 (7.64, 21.19) 0.000 13.08 (5.72, 20.44) 0.001 −0.14 (− 0.67, 0.38) 0.594 − 0.05 (− 0.64, 0.54) 0.859
 ≥ 5ULN 3.89 (− 0.34, 8.12) 0.072 3.82 (− 0.79, 8.44) 0.104 13.2 (4.77, 21.64) 0.002 9.08 (−0.12, 18.29) 0.053 0.20 (−0.45, 0.86) 0.539 0.23 (−0.51, 0.97) 0.533
Genotype (Genotype C is the reference group)
 B −0.84 (−4.2, 2.53) 0.623 −0.14 (−3.42, 3.13) 0.930 −4.03 (−10.79, 2.73) 0.241 −2.5 (−9.04, 4.04) 0.451 − 0.52 (− 1.02, − 0.03) 0.039 −0.49 (− 1.02, 0.03) 0.067
 N −0.85 (−5.43, 3.73) 0.715 − 2.39 (−7.83, 3.06) 0.388 − 9.19 (− 18.39, 0.01) 0.050 −6.88 (− 17.75, 3.99) 0.213 − 0.36 (− 1.04, 0.31) 0.288 − 0.59 (− 1.46, 0.28) 0.184
 O −5.27 (− 10.98, 0.45) 0.071 −3.46 (− 9.08, 2.17) 0.226 −16.2 (− 27.68, − 4.72) 0.006 −11.84 (− 23.06, − 0.63) 0.039 − 0.68 (− 1.52, 0.16) 0.113 − 0.64 (− 1.54, 0.26) 0.161
  1. Significant values are shown in boldface. B: Unstandardized Coefficients. HBV genotype: Other included C + D, B + D, B + C, D; N, not detected
  2. ALT alanine aminotransferase, HBeAg HBV e antigen, HBsAg hepatitis B surface antigen