Skip to main content

Table 4 Univarite and multivariate analyses in identification factors associated with hepatitis B infection

From: Seroprevalence and factors associated with hepatitis B infection among the hill tribe adult population in Thailand: a cross-sectional study

Factors Hepatitis B infection χ2
(p-value)
OR 95% CI p-value ORAdj 95% CI p-value
Yes
n (%)
No
n (%)
Sex
 Male 150 (25.6) 435 (74.4) 0.42 (0.519) 0.93 0.73–1.17 0.519    
 Female 246 (27.2) 660 (72.8) 1.00      
Age (years)
  < 30 18 (27.3) 48 (72.3) 7.72 (0.021a) 1.00      
 30–60 338 (27.9) 874 (72.1) 1.03 0.59–1.80 0.914    
  > 60 40 (30.1) 173 (69.9) 0.62 0.33–1.17 0.140    
Tribe
 Akha 81 (27.5) 214 (72.5) 11.50 (0.042a) 1.14 0.79–1.63 0.490 1.08 0.73–1.59 0.694
 Lahu 84 (24.3) 262 (75.7) 0.96 0.68–1.37 0.829 0.91 0.62–1.33 0.623
 Hmong 70 (23.4) 229 (76.6) 0.92 0.63–1.33 0.646 0.99 0.67–1.46 0.966
 Yao 57 (34.1) 110 (65.9) 1.56 1.03–2.34 0.034a 1.64 1.08–2.49 0.020a
 Lisu 25 (36.8) 43 (63.2) 1.74 1.00–3.04 0.049a 1.93 1.10–3.41 0.023a
 Karen 79 (25.0) 237 (75.0) 1.00    1.00   
Marital status
  Married 18 (24.7) 55 (75.3) 5.42 (0.066) 1.00      
  Single 353 (27.5) 929 (72.5) 1.16 0.67–2.01 0.592    
 Ever married 25 (18.4) 111 (81.6) 0.69 0.35–1.37 0.286    
Religion
 Buddhism 205 (24.7) 625 (75.3) 3.32 (0.068) 1.00    1.00   
 Christianity 191 (28.9) 470 (71.1) 1.24 1.01–1.56 0.049a 1.41 1.06–1.87 0.017a
Education
 Illiterate 198 (24.2) 621 (75.8) 12.28 (0.006a) 0.83 0.48–1.42 0.496    
 Primary school 100 (26.1) 283 (73.9) 0.92 0.52–1.62 0.768    
 Secondary school 78 (35.9) 139 (64.1) 1.46 0.81–2.62 0.206    
 High school and above 20 (27.8) 52 (72.2) 1.00      
Having Thai ID card
 Yes 373 (26.3) 1047 (73.7) 1.30 (0.254) 1.00      
 No 23 (32.4) 48 (67.6) 1.35 0.81–2.24 0.156    
Having free access to health care services
 Yes 376 (26.5) 1044 (73.5) 0.10 (0.753) 1.00      
 No 20 (28.2) 51 (71.8) 0.92 0.54–1.56 0.761    
Occupation
 Farmer 345 (24.5) 957 (73.5) 6.97 (0.031a) 1.00      
  Working in a trade 16 (44.4) 20 (55.6) 2.22 1.14–4.33 0.019a    
  Daily wage employee 35 (22.9) 118 (77.1) 0.82 0.55–1.22 0.335    
Number of family members (persons)
  < 4 202 (27.9) 523 (72.1) 1.39 (0.499) 1.00      
 4–7 153 (25.7) 443 (74.3) 0.89 0.70–1.14 0.372    
  > 7 41 (24.1) 129 (75.9) 0.82 0.56–1.21 0.324    
Income (baht)
  < 10,000 45 (28.5) 113 (71.5) 9.65 (0.008a) 1.00      
 10,001 – 50,000 222 (23.9) 707 (76.1) 0.78 0.54–1.15 0.217    
  > 50,000 129 (31.9) 275 (68.1) 1.18 0.79–1.76 0.427    
History of having hepatitis B vaccination
 Yes 65 (25.7) 188 (74.3) 3.52 (0.318) 1.00      
 No 227 (27.4) 601 (72.6) 1.09 0.79–1.51 0.589    
 Not sure 78 (27.9) 202 (72.1) 1.12 0.76–1.64 0.573    
 Don’t know 26 (20.0) 104 (8.0) 0.72 0.43–1.21 0.216    
History of having hepatitis B infection in family member
 Yes 24 (30.8) 54 (29.2) 7.84 (0.049a) 1.00      
 No 278 (26.3) 781 (72.7) 0.80 0.49–1.32 0.384    
 Not sure 62 (32.3) 130 (67.7) 1.07 0.61–1.89 0.808    
 Don’t know 32 (19.8) 130 (80.2) 0.55 0.29–1.03 0.061    
Tattooed
 No 345 (26.2) 972 (73.8) 0.76 (0.382) 1.00      
 Yes 51 (29.3) 123 (70.7) 1.17 0.82–1.66 0.382    
Ear pierced
 No 183 (26.2) 516 (73.8) 0.10 (0.756) 1.00      
 Yes 213 (26.9) 579 (73.1) 1.04 0.82–1.31 0.756    
History of blood transfusion
 No 384 (26.6) 1062 (73.4) 0.00 (0.987) 1.00      
 Yes 12 (26.7) 33 (73.3) 1.01 0.51–1.97 0.987    
History of organ transplantation
 No 391 (26.6) 1077 (73.4) 0.28 (0.598) 1.00      
 Yes 5 (38.5) 18 (61.5) 0.77 0.28–2.08 0.599    
History of medical surgery
 No 350 (26.4) 975 (73.6) 0.13 (0.722) 1.00      
 Yes 46 (27.7) 120 (72.3) 1.07 0.74–1.53 0.722    
Receiving a drug injection from an untrained medical professional
 No 387 (26.8) 1055 (73.2) 1.74 (0.187) 1.00      
 Yes 9 (27.4) 40 (72.6) 0.61 0.30–1.28 0.191    
Having acupuncture
 No 363 (26.4) 1014 (73.6) 0.36 (0.548) 1.00      
 Yes 33 (28.9) 81 (71.1) 1.14 0.75–1.74 0.548    
Sharing toothbrush
 No 365 (34.6) 1019 (65.4) 0.34 (0.558) 1.00      
 Yes 31 (28.9) 76 (71.1) 1.14 0.74–1.76 0.558    
Alcohol use
 Yes 133 (23.6) 431 (76.4) 4.12 (0.042a) 1.00    1.00   
 No 263 (28.4) 664 (71.6) 1.28 1.01–1.63 0.043a 1.29 1.01–1.65 0.040a
Methamphetamine use
 Yes 11 (22.0) 39 (78.0) 0.55 (0.458) 0.77 0.39–1.53 0.459    
 No 385 (26.7) 1056 (73.3) 1.00      
Heroin use
 Yes 3 (42.9) 4 (57.1) 0.96 (0.328) 2.08 0.46–9.34 0.338    
 No 393 (26.5) 1091 (73.5) 1.00      
Opium use
 Yes 13 (54.5) 38 (74.5) 0.03 (0.860) 0.94 0.50–1.79 0.860    
 No 383 (26.6) 1057 (73.4) 1.00      
Marijuana use
 Yes 5 (16.1) 26 (83.9) 1.77 (0.184) 0.53 0.20–1.38 0.191    
 No 391 (26.8) 1069 (73.2) 1.00      
  1. aSignificance level at α = 0.05