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Table 2 Identifications of health behaviors by sex

From: Seroprevalence and factors associated with hepatitis B infection among the hill tribe adult population in Thailand: a cross-sectional study

Health behaviors Total Male Female χ2
(p-value)
n % n % n %
Alcohol use
 No 927 62.2 370 63.2 557 61.5 0.47 (0.492)
 Yes 564 37.8 215 36.8 349 38.5
Methamphetamine use
 No 1441 96.6 567 96.9 874 96.5 0.23 (0.634)
 Yes 50 3.4 18 3.1 32 3.5
Heroin use
 No 1484 99.5 581 99.3 903 99.7 0.95 (0.331)
 Yes 7 0.5 4 0.7 3 0.3
Opium use
 Yes 1440 96.6 559 95.6 881 97.2 3.01 (0.080)
 No 51 3.4 26 4.4 25 2.8
Marijuana use
 Yes 1460 97.9 571 97.6 889 98.1 0.47 (0.495)
 No 31 2.1 14 2.4 17 1.9
Tattooed
 No 1317 88.3 464 79.3 853 94.2 75.88 (< 0.001a)
 Yes 174 11.7 121 20.7 53 5.8
Ear piercing
 No 699 46.9 504 86.2 195 21.5 596.26 (< 0.001a)
 Yes 792 53.1 81 13.8 711 78.5
History of blood transfusion      881 60.9  
 No 1446 97.0 565 96.5 881 97.2 0.53 (0.467)
 Yes 45 3.0 20 3.4 25 2.8
History of organ transplantation
 No 1468 98.5 573 97.9 895 98.8 1.64 (0.200)
 Yes 23 1.5 12 2.1 11 1.2
History of medical surgery
 No 1325 88.9 534 91.3 791 87.3 5.68 (0.017a)
 Yes 166 11.1 51 8.7 115 12.7
Drug injection from unqualified health professional
 No 1442 96.7 559 95.6 883 97.5 4.06 (0.044a)
 Yes 49 3.3 26 4.4 23 2.5
Acupuncture
 No 1377 92.4 544 93.0 833 91.9 0.55 (0.457)
 Yes 114 7.6 41 7.0 73 8.1
Sharing toothbrush
 No 1384 92.8 527 90.1 857 94.6 10.84 (0.001a)
 Yes 107 7.2 58 9.9 49 5.4
History of receiving HBV vaccine
 Yes 78 5.2 113 19.3 140 15.5 4.55 (0.208)
 No 1059 71.0 313 53.5 515 56.8
 Not sure 192 12.9 105 17.9 175 19.3
 Don’t know 162 10.9 54 9.2 76 8.4
  1. aSignificance level at α = 0.05