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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate survival analysis by Cox regression for 416 adult patients with invasive pneumococcal disease at admission to Aker University Hospital between 1993 and 2008

From: Gastrointestinal symptoms in invasive pneumococcal disease: a cohort study

Univariate analysis
Variables Hazard ratio Std.err p-value 95% CI
Gastrointestinal symptoms 1.53 0.41 0.116 0.90 - 2.59
Age 1.03 0.01 < 0.001 1.02 - 1.05
Being female 0.60 0.15 0.046 0.36 - 0.99
Cardiovascular disease 1.62 0.41 0.061 0.98 - 2.67
Diabetes 1.68 0.64 0.169 0.80 - 3.54
Pulmonary disease 1.36 0.37 0.255 0.80 - 2.33
Cancer 1.73 0.50 0.061 0.98 - 3.06
Alcohol 1.53 0.53 0.222 0.77 - 3.01
Smoking 1.13 0.29 0.626 0.68 - 1.88
Steroid 1.74 0.63 0.126 0.86 - 3.52
Antibiotics given immediately after blood culture was drawn 0.49 0.25 0.170 0.18 - 1.36
Multivariate analysis
Variables Hazard ratio Std.err p-value 95% CI
Gastrointestinal symptoms 2.22 0.63 0.005 1.27 - 3.89
Age 1.05 0.01 0.000 1.03 - 1.07
Being female 0.52 0.14 0.016 0.31 - 0.88
Cardiovascular disease 1.03 0.30 0.905 0.59 - 1.82
Diabetes 1.56 0.62 0.259 0.72 - 3.38
Pulmonary disease 0.98 0.29 0.955 0.55 - 1.76
Cancer 1.58 0.50 0.142 0.86 - 2.93
Alcohol 1.89 0.72 0.098 0.89 - 4.00
Smoking 1.35 0.38 0.284 0.78 - 2.33
Steroid 1.58 0.59 0.226 0.75 - 3.29
Antibiotics given immediately after blood culture was drawn 0.62 0.34 0.381 0.22 - 1.79
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