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Table 1 Characteristics of 416 adult patients with invasive pneumococcal disease according to gastrointestinal symptoms at admission to Aker University Hospital between 1993 and 2008

From: Gastrointestinal symptoms in invasive pneumococcal disease: a cohort study

  No gastrointestinal symptoms (308 patients) Gastrointestinal symptoms (108 patients) p-valuea Gastrointestinal symptoms only (47 patients) p-valuea
Age (years):
Mean (95% CI) 67.1 (65.2–69.0) 59.1 (55.6–62.7) < 0.001 55.7 (50.2–61.3) < 0.001
Median (5–95 percentile) 70.7 (33.0–89.7) 58.8 (25.9–86.7)   56.2 (23.2–88.4)  
Days hospitalizedb:
Mean (95% CI) 16.0 (13.9–18.2) 12.8 (10.5–15.1) 0.053 13.5 (9.7–17.3) 0.192
Median (5–95 percentile) 10.0 (1–45) 9.0 (11–32)   10.0 (1–35)  
Male (%) 137 (44.5) 46 (42.6) 0.734 18 (38.3) 0.426
Inflammatory markers at admission:
Mean CRP (95% CI)c 274.6 (256.2–293.0) 290.0 (257.3–322.7) 0.405 247.1 (205.8–288.5) 0.274
WBC < 4 or > 12 (%)d 209 (69.9) 72 (69.9) 1.000 32 (71.1) 0.869
Comorbidities (%):
Cardiovascular disease 129 (41.9) 23 (21.3) < 0.001 9 (19.2) 0.003
Pulmonary disease 90 (29.2) 21 (19.4) 0.048 7 (14.9) 0.040
Cancer 62 (20.1) 12 (11.1) 0.035 5 (10.6) 0.121
Diabetes 25 (8.1) 10 (9.3) 0.713 4 (8.5) 1.000
Risk factors (%):
Steroid use 32 (10.4) 7 (6.5) 0.231 3 (6.4) 0.598
Smoking 127 (41.2) 38 (35.2) 0.269 19 (40.4) 0.916
Alcohol 35 (11.4) 11 (10.2) 0.737 6 (12.8) 0.779
Immunosuppressede 48 (15.6) 11 (10.2) 0.166 4 (8.5) 0.269
  1. acompared to no gastrointestinal symptoms
  2. binfo missing for 2 patients in the no gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms group
  3. cinfo missing for 17 patients in the no GI symptoms, 5 in the GI symptoms, and 2 in the only GI symptoms group
  4. dinfo missing for 9 patients in the no GI symptoms, 5 in the GI symptoms, and 2 in the only GI symptoms group
  5. edefined as hematological cancer, oral or intravenous steroid treatment, cytotoxic drug treatment and asplenia