Skip to main content

Table 7 Results of the univariable and multivariable analyses for Pakistan and global Moran’s I of the residuals of the multivariable models

From: Finding gaps in TB notifications: spatial analysis of geographical patterns of TB notifications, associations with TB program efforts and social determinants of TB risk in Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan

  Univariable Non-spatial multivariable a Spatial multivariable b
Covariate B CI B CI B CI
Constant 25.00*** 25.60–60.60 24.06*** 23.60–57.97
Testing rate 0.04*** 0.02–0.07 0.08*** 0.05–0.11 0.08*** 0.05–0.10
Test positivity rate 4.04*** 2.20–5.91 4.32*** 2.6–6.08 4.29*** 2.73–5.87
Bacteriologically diagnosed −1.84*** −2.58 – − 1.10 −1.43*** − 2.06 - -0.8 −1.45*** −2.02 - -0.88
Treatment success rate 0.99 0.97–1.02 0.06 −1.45 - 1.59 0.07 −1.34 - 1.5
Vaccination coverage 1.88*** 1.38–2.38 1.15*** 0.52–1.78 1.17*** 0.61–1.72
Migrant distribution 1.5*** 1.06–1.9 0.61 −0.63 - 1.86 0.64 −0.51 - 1.81
Facility density −9.19 −20.01 – 3.10 20.64** 7.94–34.84 20.41*** 8.42–33.72
Poverty headcount ratio −1.87*** − 90.40 – −75.37 6.42 −36.05 - 77.09 16.56 −25.55 - 82.48
Stunting −1.27* −2.47 – −0.05 1.55 −1.18 - 4.37 1.52 −0.94 - 4.04
Under-five mortality rate −1.86** −2.15 – −0.47 −0.55 − 2.19 - 1.1 − 0.55 −2.06 - 0.99
Security − 0.11 − 0.43 – − 0.21 −7.35 −45.33 - 56.99 − 7.85 −42.66 - 48.11
Global Moran’s I of the residuals    0.11   −0.04  
P-value of global Moran’s I    0.01   0.14  
  1. aGeneralized linear multivariable model for the natural logarithm of the TB case notification rate; not adjusted for spatial autocorrelation
  2. bSimultaneous autoregressive multivariable model for the natural logarithm of the TB case notification rate; adjusted for spatial autocorrelation
  3. All coefficients (B) are exponentiated and reflect percentage change in TB case notification rate
  4. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001