Skip to main content

Table 1 Defintions of covariates

From: Finding gaps in TB notifications: spatial analysis of geographical patterns of TB notifications, associations with TB program efforts and social determinants of TB risk in Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan

Theme Covariatea Definition
Access to healthcare
 Health facility density Number of health facilities per 100,000 population.
 Vaccination coverage Percentage of fully immunized children between 12 and 23 months.
 Under-five mortality rate Number of deaths of children under five per 1000 live births.
Socioeconomic status
 Poverty headcount ratio Percentage of the total population living below the national poverty line.
 Literacy rate Percentage of the population older than 15 who can read and write.
Demography & key populations
 Sex ratio Number of males per 100 females.
 Elderly population Percentage of population over 65 years of age.
 Ageing index Number of persons aged 60 or over per 100 persons under the age of 15.
 Stunting Percentage of children under five with a height-for-age z-score below −2 standard deviations, from the median of the reference population.
 Migrant distribution Percentage of total internal migrant population per area.
 Miners Percentage of wage earners in mining industry/ total population in mining and quarrying industry.
 Population density Number of persons per square kilometre.
 Security Districts of Pakistan that were frequently reported as “insecure”.
Quality of TB diagnostic and treatment services
 Testing rate Number of persons tested for TB per 100,000 population.
 Test positivity rate Percentage of tested individuals with a positive test result.
 Bacteriologically diagnosed Proportion of total cases with a bacteriologically confirmed test result.
 Treatment success rate Proportion of notified cases who have completed their treatment.
  1. aNot all covariates were available for all countries