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Table 2 Infection-related characteristics of cancer patients who survived or died during hospitalization of nosocomial infections caused by MDR bacteria

From: Nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant bacteria in cancer patients: a six-year retrospective study of an oncology Center in Western China

Characteristics All
N = 257
Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Survivor
N = 229, n (%)
Non-survivor
N = 28, n (%)
P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Sample type
 Sputum 62 (24.1) 53 (23.1) 9 (32.1) 0.293   
 Urine 93 (36.2) 91 (39.7) 2 (7.1) 0.001* 0.01 (0–1.10) 0.054
 Blood culture 44 (17.1) 32 (14.0) 12 (42.9) < 0.001* 1.21 (0.03–50.21) 0.919
 Ascites 10 (3.9) 9 (3.9) 1 (3.6) 1.000   
 Wounds secreta 21 (8.2) 20 (8.7) 1 (3.6) 0.565   
 Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 6 (2.3) 4 (1.7) 2 (7.1) 0.262   
 Drainage fluid post-operation 21 (8.2) 20 (8.7) 1 (3.6) 0.565   
Primary sites of infection
 Respiratory tract 69 (26.8) 56 (24.5) 13 (46.4) 0.013* 5.36 (0.43–66.55) 0.191
 Urinary tract 98 (38.1) 94 (41.0) 4 (14.3) 0.006* 0.58 (0.04–8.21) 0.686
 Skin and soft tissue 19 (7.4) 18 (7.9) 1 (3.6) 0.663   
 Thoracic cavity 13 (5.7) 13 (5.7) 0 0.403   
 Abdominal cavity 24 (9.3) 22 (9.6) 2 (7.1) 0.937   
 Catheter related 2 (0.8) 2 (0.9) 0 1.000   
 BSI 32 (12.5) 24 (10.5) 8 (28.6) 0.015* 4.02 (0.18–89.40) 0.379
Length of hospitalization 21.0 (12.0–28.0) 21.0 (13.0–28.0) 11.0 (7.0–16.0) < 0.001*   
  ≥ 21.0 130 (50.6) 126 (55.0) 4 (14.3) < 0.001* 0.06 (0.01–0.43) 0.005*
Empirical antibiotics treatment 224 (87.2) 198 (86.5) 26 (92.9) 0.512   
 β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations 41 (16.0) 36 (15.7) 5 (17.9) 0.986   
 Cephalosporins 22 (8.6) 20 (8.7) 2 (7.1) 1.000   
 Carbapenems 9 (3.5) 9 (3.9) 0 0.601   
 Fluoroquinolones 22 (8.6) 19 (8.3) 3 (10.7) 0.941   
 Aminoglycosides 5 (1.9) 5 (2.2) 0 0.948   
 Combination therapy 125 (48.6) 109 (47.6) 16 (57.1) 0.340   
Effective empirical antibiotics treatment 134 (52.1) 118 (51.5) 16 (57.1) 0.575   
Length of antibiotics treatment (days) 8.0 (5.0–13.0) 8.0 (5.0–13.0) 6.5 (4.0–9.8) 0.143   
ICU admission 33 (12.8) 30 (13.1) 3 (10.7) 0.955   
Mechanical ventilation 18 (7.0) 14 (6.1) 4 (14.3) 0.227   
Septic shock 38 (14.8) 27 (11.8) 11 (39.3) < 0.001* 1.27 (0.17–9.48) 0.814
Laboratory examination results       
 Hemoglobin (g/L; normal range 115–150) 106.0 (93.0–117.0) 107.0 (94.5–118.5) 99.0 (80.8–107.0) 0.001*   
  < 110 148 (57.6) 125 (54.6) 23 (82.1) 0.005* 9.15 (1.22–68.66) 0.031*
 Platelet count (×109/L; normal range 125–350) 212.0 (139.0–278.0) 219.0 (147.5–281.5) 123.5 (51.0–225.3) 0.009*   
  < 100.0 32 (12.5) 21 (9.2) 11 (39.3) < 0.001* 4.41 (0.61–36.91) 0.142
 White-cell count (×109/L; normal range 4.0–10.0) 7.0 (4.8–10.0) 6.9 (4.8–9.8) 7.3 (3.4–11.6) 0.521   
  > 10.0 64 (24.9) 55 (24.0) 9 (32.1) 0.348   
  < 4.0 46 (17.9) 39 (17.0) 7 (25.0) 0.299   
 Neutrophils count (× 109/L; normal range 1.8–6.3) 5.3 (3.1–8.2) 5.3 (3.1–8.0) 6.1 (2.5–10.3) 0.812   
 Lymphocytes count (×109/L; normal range 1.1–3.2) 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 0.6 (0.3–0.9) 0.014*   
  < 1.0 152 (59.1) 129 (56.3) 23 (82.1) 0.009* 2.43 (0.29–20.48) 0.414
 PCT (ng/mL; normal range 0–0.5) 0.5 (0.5–0.9) 0.5 (0.5–0.5) 1.2 (0.5–6.7) 0.139   
  ≥ 1.0 62 (24.1) 46 (20.1) 16 (57.1) < 0.001* 0.82 (0.14–5.00) 0.833
 Albumin (g/L; normal range 40–55) 34.6 (30.0–39.0) 35.0 (30.0–39.0) 31.0 (26.4–34.8) < 0.001*   
  < 30.0 61 (23.7) 49 (21.4) 12 (42.9) 0.012* 3.55 (0.53–23.80) 0.193
  1. Abbreviations: MDR multidrug-resistant, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, BSI bloodstream infection, ICU intensive care unit, PCT procalcitonin
  2. *” represents P < 0.05