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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of cancer patients who survived or died during hospitalization of nosocomial infections caused by MDR bacteria

From: Nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant bacteria in cancer patients: a six-year retrospective study of an oncology Center in Western China

Characteristics All
N = 257
Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Survivor
N = 229, n (%)
Non-survivor
N = 28, n (%)
P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Demographic data
 Sex (male) 117 (45.5) 103 (45.0) 14 (50.0) 0.614   
 Age (years) 59.6 ± 11.5 59.1 ± 11.4 63.6 ± 12.2 0.052 1.03 (0.96–1.10) 0.413
Smoking history     0.039*   0.048*
 Never smoker 171 (66.5) 153 (66.8) 18 (64.3)   REF (1.00)  
 Former smoker 46 (17.9) 37 (16.2) 9 (32.1)   8.38 (1.10–63.74) 0.040*
 Current smoker 40 (15.6) 39 (17.0) 1 (3.6)   0.44 (0.03–7.25) 0.373
ECOG performance status     0.002*   
 0,1 183 (71.2) 170 (74.2) 13 (46.4)   REF (1.00)  
 2,3,4 74 (28.8) 59 (25.8) 15 (53.6)   2.91 (0.55–15.34) 0.207
Underlying cancer type
 Head and neck cancer 4 (1.6) 3 (1.3) 1 (3.6) 0.371   
 Lung cancer 19 (7.4) 17 (7.4) 2 (7.1) 1.000   
 Esophago-gastrointestinal cancer 74 (28.8) 65 (28.4) 9 (32.1) 0.678   
 Colon and rectal cancer 34 (13.2) 30 (13.1) 4 (14.3) 1.000   
 Hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancer 10 (3.9) 8 (3.5) 2 (7.1) 0.671   
 Breast cancer 21 (8.2) 18 (7.9) 3 (10.7) 0.877   
 Genitourinary cancer 15 (5.8) 14 (6.1) 1 (3.6) 0.909   
 Gynecological cancer 63 (24.5) 59 (25.8) 4 (14.3) 0.183   
 Lymphoma 4 (1.6) 3 (1.3) 1 (3.6) 0.371   
 Othersa 13 (5.1) 12 (5.2) 1 (3.6) 1.000   
Existence of distant metastasis     0.008* 1.32 (0.19–9.33) 0.778
 None 191 (74.3) 176 (76.9) 15 (53.6)    
 Yes 66 (25.7) 53 (23.1) 13 (46.4)    
Stage of cancer     0.143   
 Stage I 48 (18.7) 44 (19.2) 4 (14.3)    
 Stage II 76 (29.6) 71 (31.0) 5 (17.9)    
 Stage III 60 (23.3) 54 (23.6) 6 (21.4)    
 Stage IV 73 (28.4) 60 (26.2) 13 (46.4)    
Comorbidities
 Cerebrovascular disease 6 (2.3) 4 (1.7) 2 (7.1) 0.130   
 Liver disease 11 (4.3) 7 (3.1) 4 (14.3) 0.023* 7.17 (0.33–154.00) 0.208
 Diabetes 20 (7.8) 17 (7.4) 3 (10.7) 0.810   
 Renal disease 15 (5.8) 11 (4.8) 4 (14.3) 0.111   
CCI     0.005*   0.917
 0 203 (79.0) 187 (81.7) 16 (57.1)   REF (1.00)  
 1–2 49 (19.1) 39 (17.0) 10 (35.7)   0.73 (0.14–3.77) 0.709
  ≥ 3 5 (1.9) 3 (1.3) 2 (7.1)   1.08 (0.02–58.19) 0.968
Existence of fever 103 (40.1) 88 (38.4) 15 (53.6) 0.123   
Surgery (within 30 days)     0.003*   0.066
 None 148 (57.6) 124 (54.1) 24 (85.7)   REF (1.00)  
 Curative surgery 93 (36.2) 91 (39.7) 2 (7.1)   0.01 (0.00–0.53) 0.024
 Palliative surgery 16 (6.2) 14 (6.1) 2 (7.1)   0.36 (0.02–6.02) 0. 479
Chemotherapy (within 30 days)     0.026*   0.800
 None 167 (65.0) 146 (63.8) 21 (75.0)   REF (1.00)  
 Neoadjuvant 1 (0.4) 1 (0.4) 0   0 1.000
 Adjuvant 57 (22.2) 54 (23.6) 3 (10.7)   0 0.998
 1st line 20 (7.8) 20 (8.7) 0   3.11 (0.22–44.84) 0.405
 2nd line 7 (2.7) 4 (1.7) 3 (10.7)   0.05 (0.00–12.95) 0.285
  ≥ 3rd line 5 (1.9) 4 (1.7) 1 (3.6)   0.74 (0.08–7.02) 0.796
Radiotherapy (within 30 days) 34 (13.2) 31 (13.5) 3 (10.7) 0.904   
Concurrent chemoradiotherapy
(within 30 days)
37 (14.4) 36 (15.7) 1 (3.6) 0.149   
Intrapleural/abdominal infusion
(within 30 days)
10 (3.9) 5 (2.2) 5 (17.9) < 0.001* 23.92 (2.16–264.29) 0.010*
Corticosteroid therapy (within 30 days) 125 (48.6) 112 (48.9) 13 (46.4) 0.804   
Prior infection (within 30 days) 13 (5.1) 10 (4.4) 3 (10.7) 0.322   
Prior G-CSF use (within 30 days) 90 (35.0) 84 (36.7) 6 (21.4) 0.110   
Prior antibiotics use (within 30 days) 12 (4.7) 11 (4.8) 1 (3.6) 1.000   
Presence of indwelling catheters
or other devices
      
 Biliary stent 2 (0.8) 2 (0.9) 0 1.000   
 Ureteral stent 15 (5.8) 15 (6.6) 0 0.333   
 Indwelling urinary catheters 86 (33.5) 82 (35.8) 4 (14.3) 0.023* 31.62 (1.28–262.79) 0.035*
 CVC (port-a-cath or PICC) 35 (13.6) 31 (13.5) 4 (14.3) 1.000   
 Percutaneous pleural drainage tube 55 (21.4) 51 (22.3) 4 (14.3) 0.331   
 Percutaneous abdomen drainage tube 6 (2.3) 4 (1.7) 2 (7.1) 0.130   
 Drains postoperation 89 (34.6) 85 (37.1) 4 (14.3) 0.017* 1.43 (0.06–37.43) 0.829
 Nasogastric tube 67 (26.1) 62 (27.1) 5 (17.9) 0.294   
Invasive procedure (within 30 days) 157 (61.1) 142 (62.0) 15 (53.6) 0.387   
  1. Abbreviations: MDR multidrug-resistant, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ECOG Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, CCI Charlson Co-morbidity Index score, G-CSF granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, CVC central venous catheter, PICC peripherally inserted central catheter
  2. a Others: primitive neuroectodermal tumor (4 patients), duodenal carcinoma three patients, thymic carcinoma, carcinoid cancer of appendix, and sarcoma two patients each
  3. *” represents P < 0.05