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Table 3 Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis of demographic and clinical factors associated with all-cause mortality among pneumococcal disease patients

From: Epidemiology, vaccine effectiveness, and risk factors for mortality for pneumococcal disease among hospitalised adults in Singapore: a case-control study

CharacteristicsDied (N = 70), N(%)Survived (N = 426), N(%)OR (95%CI)p valueAOR (95% CI)p value
Age, mean (years) ± SD74.4 ± 14.368.2 ± 15.4 < 0.001  
Age group
  < 65 years16 (22.9)154 (36.2)RefRefRefRef
 65-74 years18 (25.7)107 (25.1)1.62 (0.79–3.32)0.1881.70 (0.69–4.15)0.246
 75-84 years16 (22.9)115 (27.0)1.34 (0.64–2.79)0.4351.99 (0.80–4.94)0.138
  ≥ 85 years20 (28.6)50 (11.7)3.85 (1.85–8.00)< 0.00110.78 (4.10–28.37)< 0.001
Gender = male45 (64.3)280 (65.7)0.94 (0.55–1.59)0.8141.05 (0.55–1.98)0.892
Ethnicity
 Chinese51 (72.9)308 (72.3)RefRef  
 Malay9 (12.9)52 (12.2)1.05 (0.49–2.25)0.910  
 Indian7 (10.0)32 (7.5)1.32 (0.55–3.15)0.530  
 Others3 (4.3)34 (8.0)0.53 (0.16–1.80)0.311  
Vaccination status (received ≥ 14 days prior to admission)
 Any pneumococcal vaccination7 (10.0)73 (17.1)0.54 (0.24–1.22)0.138  
 Influenza vaccination in past 1 yr8 (11.4)67 (15.7)0.69 (0.32–1.51)0.354  
Co-morbidities
 Charlson’s score, median (IQR)1 (0–4)2 (1–4) < 0.001  
 Charlson’s score > 330 (42.7)107 (25.1)2.24 (1.33–3.77)0.0021.93 (1.02–3.64)0.042
 Myocardial infarction / Congestive heart failure30 (42.9)113 (26.5)2.08 (1.24–3.49)0.006  
 Cerebrovascular disease17 (24.3)49 (11.5)2.47 (1.33–4.60)0.004  
 Dementia16 (22.9)38 (8.9)3.03 (1.58–5.79)0.001  
 Chronic pulmonary disease16 (22.9)133 (31.2)0.65 (0.36–1.18)0.160  
 Liver disease3 (4.3)24 (5.6)0.75 (0.22–2.56)0.997  
 Diabetes mellitus24 (34.3)123 (28.9)1.29 (0.75–2.20)0.409  
 Renal disease16 (22.9)77 (18.1)1.34 (0.73–2.47)0.343  
 Any malignancy12 (17.1)41 (9.6)1.94 (0.97–3.91)0.063  
Invasive pneumococcal disease24 (34.3)68 (16.0)2.75 (1.57–4.80)< 0.0013.19 (1.55–6.59)0.002
Outcomes
 ICU admission31 (44.3)23 (5.4)13.93 (7.40–26.19)< 0.00123.22 (11.07–48.70)< 0.001
 Length of stay (days), median (IQR)7 (4–21)8 (6–15) 0.081  
 Length of stay > 7 days33 (47.1)242 (56.8)1.08 (0.90–1.29)0.414  
  1. Variables included in the final multivariable analysis were age group, gender, Charlson’s score > 3, diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease, and intensive care unit admission. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, AOR adjusted OR, SD standard deviation, IQR inter-quartile range, ICU intensive care unit