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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalised patients with pneumococcal disease

From: Epidemiology, vaccine effectiveness, and risk factors for mortality for pneumococcal disease among hospitalised adults in Singapore: a case-control study

CharacteristicsPneumococcal disease (N = 496), N(%)
Age, mean (years) ± SD69.1 ± 15.4
Age group
  < 65 years170 (34.3)
 65-74 years125 (25.2)
 75-84 years131 (26.4)
  ≥ 85 years70 (14.1)
Gender = male325 (65.5)
Ethnicity
 Chinese359 (72.4)
 Malay61 (12.3)
 Indian39 (7.9)
 Others37 (7.5)
Nursing home residence4 (0.8)
Vaccination status (received ≥ 14 days prior to admission)
 PCV136 (1.2)
 PPSV2378 (15.7)
 Any pneumococcal vaccination80 (16.1)
 Influenza vaccination in past 1 yr75 (15.1)
Co-morbidities
 Charlson’s score, median (IQR)2 (1–4)
 Charlson’s score > 3137 (27.6)
 Myocardial infarction/Congestive heart failure143 (28.8)
 Cerebrovascular disease66 (13.3)
 Dementia54 (10.9)
 Chronic pulmonary disease149 (30.0)
 Liver disease27 (5.4)
 Diabetes mellitus147 (29.6)
 Renal disease93 (18.8)
 Any malignancy53 (10.7)
 Hemiplegia18 (3.6)
 Peripheral vascular disease22 (4.4)
 Peptic ulcer disease17 (3.4)
 Connective tissue disease8 (1.6)
 AIDs3 (0.6)
Primary diagnosis
 Pneumonia347 (70.0)
 Sepsis63 (12.7)
 Meningitis5 (1.0)
 Other respiratory diseases73 (14.7)
 Other diagnoses8 (1.6)
Outcomes
 ICU admission54 (11.0)
 Length of stay (days), median (IQR)8 (5–14)
 Length of stay > 7 days275 (55.4)
 In-hospital mortality70 (14.1)
 30-day in-hospital mortality33 (6.7)
Readmission for any pneumococcal infection
 Within 30 days from discharge date1 (0.2)
 Anytime during study period6 (1.2)
  1. SD standard deviation, PCV13 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination, PPSV23 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, IQR inter-quartile range, ICU intensive care unit