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Table 3 The expression levels of cytokines in E. multilocularis-infected humans

From: The correlations between Th1 and Th2 cytokines in human alveolar echinococcosis

Cytokine typeCytokineExperimental typeMethods and resultsSpecimensCitation
TH2IL-10in vitroIL-10 levels in CD8+ lymphocytes from progressive AE patients (N = 12) were definitely increased after in vitro culture with crude E. multilocularis antigen using a protocol for intracellular staining of cytokines followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis.CD8+ lymphocytes cultured in vitroKilwinski et al. [17]
TH2IL-10in vitroPeripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from progressive AE patients (N = 9) secreted significantly higher amounts of IL-10 than those isolated from abortive AE patients (N = 3); IL-10 was detected by using real-time PCR.PBMCs cultured with Emf stimulation.Godot et al. [18]
TH2IL-10clinical testSerum IL-10 levels were significantly higher in AE patients (N = 40) than in healthy controls (N = 20), with a tendency to higher concentrations in progressive cases; IL-10 was determined by ELISA.SerumWellinghausen et al. [19]
TH2IL-5in vitroIL-5 production was particularly increased in PBMCs from patients with advanced AE (n = 14) after stimulation with crude E. multilocularis antigenic preparations; IL-5 was detected by RT-PCR .PBMCsJenne et al. [20]
IL-6, IL-10
clinical testPlasma concentration levels of IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10 were slightly increased in consecutive AE patients (N = 28), and IL-23 concentration levels were significantly higher in AE patients; the cytokines were detected by ELISA.PlasmaTuxun et al. [21]
TH2TGF-βclinical testSerum TGF-β levels were high, and TGF-β was expressed by most of the infiltrating lymphocytes in progressive AE patients (N = 18) by means oOf immunochemical staining of liver sections.Surgical biopsy specimensZhang et al. [22]
TH2TGF-βin vitroHigher levels of TGF-β were observed in PBMC supernatant after exposure to Em vesicular fluid (VF) than that from healthy blood donors; TGF-β was detected using flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively.PBMCs supernatantBellanger et al. [23]
TH2TGF-βin vitroA significant increase in TGF-β production was induced in PBMCs from healthy blood donors after exposure to Em-VF and Toll-like receptor agonists by using Multiplex Luminex® bead technology.PBMCs exposure to Em-VF and Toll-like receptor agonistsBellanger et al. [24]
TH1IL-8, MCP-1in vitroPeripheral blood cells isolated from AE patients (N = 30) induced significant IL-8 and MCP-1 production when cultured with viable proliferating E. multilocularis metacestode (Em) vesicles; IL-8 and MCP-1 were detected by ELISA.PBMCs cultured with Em vesiclesDreweck et al. [25]
TH1IFN-γclinical testThe mean concentration of IFN-γ in serum from AE patients (N = 23) was higher than that in control group; IFN-γ was detected by double antibody sandwich.SerumShi et al. [26]
TH9IL-9in vitroTh9-related cytokine IL-9 mRNA levels were both elevated in PBMCs and in hepatic lesion and paralesion tissues in AE patients (N = 14); IL-9 mRNA levels were detected by real-time PCR.PBMCs and liver tissuesTuxun et al. [10]
Th17IL-17clinical testThe plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17B and its soluble receptor sIL-17RB were significantly elevated in AE patients (N = 93); IL-17B was detected by ELISA.PlasmaLechner et al. [27]
Th17IL-23in vitroIL-17A and IL-23 mRNAs levels were significantly elevated in the PBMCs isolated from AE patients (N = 30), and the levels were detected by real-time PCR.PBMCsTuxun, et al. [28]
TH2 and TH1IL-10,
in vitroEmf-stimulated mononuclear cells from the central part of the granulomatous lesions secreted more IL-10 (TH2) and less IFN-γ (TH1) than cells from the periphery of the granuloma in progressive AE patients (N = 1); the cytokines were detected by ELISA.Emf-stimulated mononuclear cellsHarraga et al. [29]
TH2 and TH1IL-31,
in vitroThe spontaneous cellular release of TH2-type cytokines IL-31 and IL-33 was clearly depressed in patients with cured, stable, and progressive AE (N = 57), whereas the levels of the TH1-type cytokine IL-27, anti-inflammatory cytokine SDF-1, and eotaxin increased with disease progression; the cytokines were detected by ELISA.PBMC culture supernatantsHuang et al. [30]
Both TH1 and TH2MIP-1α,
in vitroThe production of CC and CXC chemokines, which associate with inflammation (MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4, RANTES/CCL5 and GRO-α/CXCL1) was constitutively higher in PBMCs when cultured with E. multilocularis antigen in patients with progressive, stable or cured AE (N = 75) than in controls; the chemokines were detected by ELISA.PBMCs cultured with Em antigenKocherscheidt et al. [31]