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Table 1 Characteristics and self-reported questionnaires in chronic Q fever patients, QFS patients and control groups

From: Objective cognitive performance and subjective complaints in patients with chronic Q fever or Q fever fatigue syndrome

   Chronic
Q fever
Control group p-value QFS Control group p-value
(n = 30) (n = 23)   (n = 32) (n = 21)  
Age (in years) mean (SD) 71 (8.2) 67 (7.4) 0.042 49 (12.6) 57 (10.5) 0.011
Gender (male) n (%) 24 (80.0%) 17 (73.9%) 0.600 16 (50.0%) 11 (52.4%) 0.865
Educational level
 Low n (%) 12 (40.0%) 6 (26.1%) 0.561 8 (25.0%) 7 (33.3%) 0.488
 Middle n (%) 9 (30.0%) 8 (34.8%)   16 (50.0%) 7 (33.3%)  
 High n (%) 9 (30.0%) 9 (39.1%)   8 (25.0%) 7 (33.3%)  
Premorbid IQ a mean (SD) 93.5 (16.6) 102.9 (14.4) 0.034 90.4 (11.8) 97.8 (14.5) 0.050
Poor performance validity b n (%) 11 (37.9%) 3 (14.3%) 0.066 5 (16.1%) 4 (21.1%) 0.660
Self-reported questionnaires
 Fatigue mean (SD) 30.3 (12.1) 20.3 (9.4) 0.002 44.7 (7.6) 24.5 (13.6) < 0.001
 Depressive symptoms mean (SD) 1.6 (2.4) 1.1 (1.9) 0.439 3.3 (3.1) 1.6 (3.2) 0.066
 Cognitive complaints mean (SD) 25.3 (10.0) 27.8 (11.6) 0.394 41.2 (17.7) 30.4 (14.2) 0.023
  1. a1 missing value in QFS patients
  2. b1 missing value in chronic Q fever patients, 2 missing values in both control groups, 1 missing value in QFS patients