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Table 4 Checklist of quality assessment and risk of bias evaluation of included studies according to Fowkes and Fulton [26]

From: Association of cerebral malaria and TNF-α levels: a systematic review

 ChecklistAkinori et al., 2000 [62]Armah et al., 2005b [53]Cabantous et al., 2006 [54]Kinra and Dutta , 2013 [31]Kwiatkowski et al., 1990 [28]Prakash et al.,2006 [32]Sahu et al., 2013 [33]Thuma et al., 2011 [29]
Is the study design appropriate to objectives?Objective common design        
Prevalence e Cross-sectional        
Prognosis Cohort        
Treatment Controlled trial        
Cohort, case-control, cross-sectional00000000
Study sample representative?Source of sample000++0000
Sampling method00000000
Sample size+++++++++++++++
Entry criteria/exclusion000+++00
Non-respondents00000000
Control group acceptable?Definition of controls00000000
Source of controls000++0000
Matching/randomization+++++++++
Comparable characteristics00000000
Quality of measurements and outcomes?Validity0++000000
Reproducibility00000000
Blindness++++++++++++++++
Quality control00000000
CompletenessCompliance00000000
Drop outs00000000
DeathsNANANANANANANANA
Missing data00000000
Distorting influences?Extraneous treatments00000000
ContaminationNANANANANANANANA
Changes over timeNANANANANANANANA
Confounding factors00000000
Distortion reduced by analysis00000000
Summary questionsBias:        
Are the results erroneously biased in a certain direction?NONONONONONONONO
Confounding:        
Are there any serious confusing or other distorting influences?NONONONONONONONO
Chance:        
Is it likely that the results occurred by chance?NONONONONONONONO
  1. 0 = No problem; + = Minor problem; ++ = Major problem; NA Not applicable