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Table 2 Criteria for starting anti-tuberculous treatment in the intervention group

From: Ultrasound in managing extrapulmonary tuberculosis: a randomized controlled two-center study

Positive eFASHMultiple hypoechogenic lesions in the spleen or liver
Pericardial effusion and no other clinical explanation
Pleural effusion and no clinical or sonographic sign for heart failure (i.e normal V cava)
Subpleural echogenic granular artefacts and B-lines
abdominal, axillary, nuchal or cervical lymphnodes > 1.5 cm and no other clinical explanation for it
Thickened ileum wall (> 4 mm) and loss of wall architecture and at least one another eFASH sign
Ascites and at least one another eFASH sign
Chest X-ray with typical signs for tuberculosisCavernous lesion, upper-lobe infiltrate or miliary pattern
Positive microbiological result from any sitePositive Xpert MTB/RIF® assay and/or culture in sputum, pleural fluid, ascites, cerebrospinal fluid, or urine;
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) ≥40 U/ml in pleural fluid, [21], ADA ≥ 35 U/ml in ascetic fluid [22], or ADA ≥35 U/ml in pericardial fluid [5];
Positive fine needle aspiration result of lymph nodes (Xpert MTB/RIF® assay, culture, cytomorphology, identification of acid fast bacilli)