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Table 2 Oral health status of intervention and control groups

From: The effect of oral care intervention on pneumonia hospitalization, Staphylococcus aureus distribution, and salivary bacterial concentration in Taiwan nursing home residents: a pilot study

Oral health statusIntervention (N = 25)Control (N = 16) 
Mean ± SDMean ± SDp-valueb
Plaque index (PI)
 Before1.66 ± 0.781.54 ± 0.670.83
 After0.94 ± 0.641.99 ± 0.52<  0.01
 Difference−0.73 ± 0.430.46 ± 0.40 
p-valuea<  0.010.03 
Gingival index (GI)
 Before2.36 ± 0.762.78 ± 0.440.14
 After1.65 ± 0.832.94 ± 0.17<  0.01
 Difference−0.70 ± 0.660.17 ± 0.35 
p-valuea<  0.010.50 
Tongue coating index (TCI)
 Before0.96 ± 1.100.44 ± 0.960.07
 After0.16 ± 0.471.13 ± 0.72<  0.01
 Difference−0.80 ± 0.870.69 ± 0.95 
p-valuea<  0.010.02 
  1. aWilcoxon signed-rank test; bWilcoxon rank-sum test