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Table 2 Drug resistant TB genotypes associated with nosocomial transmission and outbreaks across Africa

From: Molecular epidemiology of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Africa: a systematic review

Country (region) MTB phenotype (number of cases) MTB lineage (clustered/total isolates) Transmission dynamics (nosocomial and/or outbreak) HIV/TB coinfectiona (%) Genotyping method Ref.
Benin (Cotonou) S mono-resistant TB (17) Lineage 2/Beijing (17/194) Community outbreak 6/17 (35%) MIRU-VNTR [19]
Mali (Bamako) XDR-TB(3) Lineage 4 (3) Nosocomial transmission 1/2 (50%) MIRU-VNTR, Spoligotyping [15]
South Africa (KZN) XDR-TB (148) Lineage 4 (53/148) Nosocomial transmission 123/126 (98%) DNA sequencing, IS6110-RFLP, Spoligotyping [88]
South Africa (KZN) MDR-TB (3) Lineage 4 /F15/LAM4/KZN (3/3) Nosocomial transmission HIV status of clustered isolates not defined IS6110-RFLP [89]
South Africa (North-Western) I mono-resistant TB (13/128)
Poly-resistant TB (7/128)
MDR-TB (108/128)
Pre-XDR-TB (26/108)
XDR-TB (5/108)
Lineage Not specified (74/128) Community outbreak and nosocomial transmission 84/91 (92%) DNA sequencing, IS6110-RFLP, MIRU-VNTR, Spoligotyping [82]
South Africa (Western Cape) MDR-TB (209) L2/Beijing
(62/209)
Community outbreak Not specified DNA sequencing, IS6110-RFLP, MIRU-VNTR, Spoligotyping [59]
South Africa (Western Cape) MDR-TB (21) L2/Beijing (16/21) Community outbreak 0% IS6110-RFLP [60]
Tunisia MDR-TB (21) Lineage 4/Haarlem3 (19/21) Community outbreak 0% IS6110-RFLP, Spoligotyping [65]
  1. aOnly cases with a known HIV status were included in the analysis. Abbreviations: H Haarlem, I Isoniazid, IS6110-RFLP Insertion Sequence 6110-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, KZN KwaZulu-Natal, MDR-TB Multidrug resistant tuberculosis, MIRU-VNTR Mycobacterial interspaced repeat units-variable number of tandem repeats, MTB Mycobacterium tuberculosis, R Rifampicin, ref. reference, S Streptomycin, Spoligotyping Spacer oligonucleotide typing, XDR-TB Extensively drug resistant tuberculosis