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Table 2 Drug resistant TB genotypes associated with nosocomial transmission and outbreaks across Africa

From: Molecular epidemiology of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Africa: a systematic review

Country (region)MTB phenotype (number of cases)MTB lineage (clustered/total isolates)Transmission dynamics (nosocomial and/or outbreak)HIV/TB coinfectiona (%)Genotyping methodRef.
Benin (Cotonou)S mono-resistant TB (17)Lineage 2/Beijing (17/194)Community outbreak6/17 (35%)MIRU-VNTR[19]
Mali (Bamako)XDR-TB(3)Lineage 4 (3)Nosocomial transmission1/2 (50%)MIRU-VNTR, Spoligotyping[15]
South Africa (KZN)XDR-TB (148)Lineage 4 (53/148)Nosocomial transmission123/126 (98%)DNA sequencing, IS6110-RFLP, Spoligotyping[88]
South Africa (KZN)MDR-TB (3)Lineage 4 /F15/LAM4/KZN (3/3)Nosocomial transmissionHIV status of clustered isolates not definedIS6110-RFLP[89]
South Africa (North-Western)I mono-resistant TB (13/128)
Poly-resistant TB (7/128)
MDR-TB (108/128)
Pre-XDR-TB (26/108)
XDR-TB (5/108)
Lineage Not specified (74/128)Community outbreak and nosocomial transmission84/91 (92%)DNA sequencing, IS6110-RFLP, MIRU-VNTR, Spoligotyping[82]
South Africa (Western Cape)MDR-TB (209)L2/Beijing
Community outbreakNot specifiedDNA sequencing, IS6110-RFLP, MIRU-VNTR, Spoligotyping[59]
South Africa (Western Cape)MDR-TB (21)L2/Beijing (16/21)Community outbreak0%IS6110-RFLP[60]
TunisiaMDR-TB (21)Lineage 4/Haarlem3 (19/21)Community outbreak0%IS6110-RFLP, Spoligotyping[65]
  1. aOnly cases with a known HIV status were included in the analysis. Abbreviations: H Haarlem, I Isoniazid, IS6110-RFLP Insertion Sequence 6110-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, KZN KwaZulu-Natal, MDR-TB Multidrug resistant tuberculosis, MIRU-VNTR Mycobacterial interspaced repeat units-variable number of tandem repeats, MTB Mycobacterium tuberculosis, R Rifampicin, ref. reference, S Streptomycin, Spoligotyping Spacer oligonucleotide typing, XDR-TB Extensively drug resistant tuberculosis