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Table 2 CSF findings, microbiologic features and etiology of bacterial meningitis in diabetic patients

From: Characteristics and outcome of spontaneous bacterial meningitis in patients with diabetes mellitus

Characteristics Diabetic Patients
(n = 106)
Other Patients
(n = 609)
P value
CSF examination
• White blood cell count, median (IQR) 960 (2672) 1008 (2670) 0.723
• Protein, g/l, median (IQR) 3.2 (6.4) 3.4 (4.75) 0.445
• CSF/plasma glucose ratio, median (IQR) 0.31 (0.36) 0.21 (0.36) 0.079
Positive CSF gram-stained smear 37 (34.9) 255 (41.9) 0.57
Positive CSF culture 81 (76.4) 429 (70.4) 0.39
Positive blood culture 67 (63.2) 273 (44.8) < 0.001
Etiology
• Meningococcal 11 (10.4) 194 (31.9) < 0.001
• Pneumococcal 26 (24.5) 154 (25.3) 0.632
• Listeria and gram-positive bacillia 19 (17.9) 64 (10.5) 0.033
• Gram-negative bacillib 10 (9.4) 32 (5.3) 0.114
Haemophilus influenza 3 (2.8) 16 (2.6) 0.753
• Otherc 17 (16) 30 (4.9) < 0.001
• Mixedd 0 (0) 4 (0.7) 1.000
• Unknown origin 16 (15.1) 115 (18.9) 0.415
  1. Gram-positive bacillia: Listeria monocytogenes (79) and Bacillus spp. (4). Gram-negative bacillib: Escherichia coli (17), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9), Pseudomonas spp (3), Klebsiella spp (2), Proteus mirabilis (2), Serratia marcescens (1), Serratia spp (2), Enterobacter cloacae (1), Citrobacter freundii (1), Bacteroides melaninogenicus (1), Acinetobacter baumannii (1), Fusobacterium (1). Otherc: S. agalactiae (9), Staphylococcus aureus (8), Enterococcus faecalis (3), S. pyogenes (3), S. viridans (3), Brucella spp (2), Neisseria subflava (1), Staphylococcus anginosus (1), Staphylococcus lugdunensis (1), Staphylococcus spp. (19, Group G Streptococcus (1). Mixed meningitisd: Bacteroides intermedius + Streptococcus viridans (1), E.cloacae + S.viridans (1), Peptostreptococcus spp + anaerobic unidentified gram negative bacilli (1), and Peptostreptococcus spp + Bacteroides spp (1)
  2. CI confidence interval, IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation, CSF cerebrospinal fluid
  3. Values are reported as no./no. evaluated (%), unless otherwise noted