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Table 1 Demographics and clinical features of spontaneous bacterial meningitis episodes in diabetic patients

From: Characteristics and outcome of spontaneous bacterial meningitis in patients with diabetes mellitus

Characteristics Diabetic Patients
(n = 106)
Other Patients
(n = 609)
P value
Male sex 53 (50) 298 (48.9) 0.916
Age – years, median (IQR)
Recurrent meningitis
67 (17)
6 (5.7)
49 (40)
26 (4.3)
< 0.001
0.455
Comorbid conditionsa 106 (100) 284 (46.6) < 0.001
• Hypertension 19 (17.9) 61 (10) 0.028
• Cancer 17 (16) 89 (14.8) 0.541
• Chronic lung diseaseb 13 (8.2) 39 (6.4) 0.098
• Alcoholism 11 (7.2) 55 (9) 0.210
Charlson comorbidity index ≥3 42 (39.6) 90 (14.8) < 0.001
Distant focus of infection 41 (38.7) 200 (32.8) 0.266
Route of acquisition
• Hospital-acquired (vs. community-acquired) 4 (3.8) 28 (4.6) 1.000
Symptoms on presentation
• Fever 100 (94.3) 579 (95.1) 0.849
• Altered mental status 83 (78.3) 383 (62.9) 0.009
• Neck stiffness 59 (55.7) 458 (75.2) < 0.001
• Triad of fever, neck stiffness, and change in mental status 44 (41.5) 282 (46.3) 0.577
• Headache 44 (41.5) 473 (77.7) < 0.001
• Nausea and/or vomiting 34 (32.1) 340 (55.8) < 0.001
• Focal neurological deficits 25 (23.6) 100 (16.4) 0.095
• Coma 21 (19.8) 94 (15.4) 0.254
• Seizures 10 (9.4) 49 (8) 0.819
• Rash 13 (12.3) 160 (26.3) 0.007
• Systolic blood pressure – mm Hg (SD) 140 (32) 128 (30) < 0.001
• Diastolic blood pressure – mm Hg (SD) 80 (19) 75 (20) 0.004
Interval symptoms-admission, hours (IQR) 25 (51.7) 24 (28) 0.184
Interval admission-therapy, hours (IQR)
Prior antimicrobial therapy
Cerebral computed tomography
4 (9)
28 (26.4)
45 (42.5)
3 (8)
185 (30.4)
192 (31.5)
0.821
0.647
0.039
White blood cell count, median (IQR) 15,025 (8525) 15,300 (10650) 0.704
Platelet count/mm3, median (IQR) 206,000 (252275) 189,500 (120750) 0.715
  1. aPatients may have more than one co-morbid condition. bIncludes: chronic bronchitis, asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, other pneumopathies. CI confidence interval. IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation
  2. Values are reported as no. / no. evaluated (%), unless otherwise noted