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Table 2 Blood cell counts and chemistry on day of diagnosis, neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid data, treatment characteristics, complications, and outcomes of patients with meningitis and/or encephalitis with and without identified infectious pathogens

From: Predictors of infectious meningitis or encephalitis: the yield of cerebrospinal fluid in a cross-sectional study

 Total cohort (n = 372)Patients with identified pathogens (n = 159)Patients without identified pathogens (n = 213)p-value
Blood cell counts and chemistry on day of diagnosis
 White blood cell count (× 109/l; median, IQR)8.46.6–12.09.17.0–13.78.26.7–11.60.060
 C-reactive protein (mg/l; median, IQR)7.81.7–48.316.83.5–97.55.91.3–34.20.002
 Albumin (g/l; median, IQR)3430–383329–383430–380.245
 Lactate (mmol/l; median, IQR)1.20.9–1.71.30.9–1.91.20.9–1.60.136
Neuroimaging
 Neuroimaging performed (n, %)33590.114088.119591.60.265
 Computed tomography performed (n, %)24766.411270.413563.40.154
 Magnetic resonance imaging performed (n, %)23763.78452.815371.8< 0.001
 Brain lesions on neuroimaging in patients with imaging (n, % patients with imaging)2034.69265.711156.90.104
  Brain edema in patients with imaging (n, % patients with imaging)3910.51913.62010.30.351
  Brain inflammation in patients with imaging (n, % patients with imaging)6818.33525.03316.90.070
Cerebrospinal fluid data
 White blood cells (× 106/l; median, IQR)6510–26117143–575335–122< 0.001
  Polynuclear cells (×106/l; median, IQR)50.3–37.4163–18710–12 
  Mononuclear cells (×106/l; median, IQR)396–1398116–217214–90 
 Protein (mg/l; median, IQR)807497–14491650629–2470684449–1111< 0.001
 Lactate (mmol/l; median, IQR)2.41.8–3.532.1–7.52.11.6–2.8< 0.001
 Glucose (mmol/l; median, IQR)3.22.6–3.82.91.9–3.53.32.9–3.9< 0.001
 Glucose ratio (CSF/serum; median, IQR)0.60.5–0.60.50.4–0.60.60.5–0.7< 0.001
Treatment
 Hospital stay (days; median, IQR)115–19146–2194–170.015
 Treatment on ICUs (n, %)14137.96943.47233.80.059
 ICU stay of patients in ICUs (days; median, IQR)32–742–732–70.208
 Mechanical ventilation (n, %)4311.62918.2146.6< 0.001
 Empiric antimicrobial treatment (n, %)32386.815195.017280.8< 0.001
 Antiseizure drugs (n, %)12132.55132.17032.90.872
 Vasopressors (n, %)4411.8 2817.6167.50.003
Complications
 Arterial hypotension (n, %)4411.82817.6167.50.003
 Epileptic seizures (n, %)256.7148.8115.20.165
 Status epilepticus (n, %)205.474.4136.10.643
 Aspiration pneumonia (n, %)133.563.873.30.785
 Brain herniation (n, %)61.642.520.90.408
In-hospital outcomes
 Death (n, %)113.031.983.80.365
 Care withdrawal (n, %)71.931.941.91.000
 Return to premorbid baseline (n, %)23663.410264.213462.90.806
  1. IQR interquartile range, ICU intensive care unit; Boldp-values indicate significance set at ap-value of < 0.002 after correction for multiple comparisons (Bonferroni)
  2. All continuous variables were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test