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Table 4 Risk factors for mortality in cases of laboratory proven influenza in hospitalized patients

From: The burden of laboratory-confirmed influenza infection in Lebanon between 2008 and 2016: a single tertiary care center experience

CharacteristicRecovery, n (%) N = 451Death, n (%) N = 18p-value
Age group  0.909*
[0–2 years [54 (12.0)2 (11.1) 
[2–5 years [33 (7.3)2 (11.1) 
[5–10 years [24 (5.3)0 (0.0) 
[10–19 years [24 (5.3)0 (0.0) 
[19–50 years [99 (22.0)3 (16.7) 
[50–65 years [93 (20.6)5 (27.8) 
≥ 65 years124 (27.5)6 (33.3) 
Gender  0.611
Male228 (50.6)8 (44.4) 
Female223 (49.4)10 (55.6) 
Presence of underlying conditions318 (70.5)16 (88.9)0.091
Underlying medical conditions
Cardiovascular disease161 (35.7)8 (44.4)0.449
Chronic pulmonary disease43 (9.5)1 (5.6)1.000*
Asthma39 (8.6)2 (11.1)0.665*
Immunosuppressive state (other than malignancy)15 (3.3)1 (5.6)0.471*
Diabetes Mellitus75 (16.6)3 (16.7)1.000*
Renal disease45 (10.0)3 (16.7)0.414*
Neuromuscular disorders9 (2.0)1 (5.6)0.326*
Neurological disorders34 (7.5)6 (33.3)0.002*
Malignancy101 (22.4)8 (44.4)0.043*
Hemoglobinopathy15 (3.3)0 (0.0)1.000*
Type of influenza  1.000*
Influenza A363 (80.5)15 (83.3) 
Influenza B79 (17.5)3 (16.7) 
Co-infection A&B9 (2.0)0 (0.0) 
Moderate to Severe disease (N = 466)269 (60.0) 18 (100.0)0.001
Radiologically confirmed pneumonia (N = 418)173 (43.3)a17 (94.4)< 0.001
Proven viral co-infectionb13 (2.9)7 (38.9)< 0.001*
Proven bacterial co-infectionc94 (20.8)11 (61.1)0.001*
  1. Pearson’s Chi-Square test was used (no expected count less than 5)
  2. *Fisher’s exact test was used when expected count was less than 5
  3. 3 patients in this group had missing data
  4. a51 patients had no imaging results
  5. bProven viral co-infection was defined by a positive PCR for other viruses whether from respiratory or other specimens
  6. cProven bacterial co-infection was defined by the presence of a positive culture
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