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Table 1 Potential risk factors in the study population of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage status. A study among children in daycare centers in Arkhangelsk, Russia 2006, N = 438ª. The table displays the number of carriers, total number of examined children, carriage rates, confidence intervals (CI) and p-values

From: Epidemiological and molecular characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage strains in pre-school children in Arkhangelsk, northern European Russia, prior to the introduction of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines

Risk factorsVariableNumber of carriers (total number of children)Carriage rate % (95% CI)P-valueb
SexFemale90 (214)42.1 (35.4–48.7)1.00
Male78 (224)34.8 (28.6–41.1)0.14
Age, months≤181 (12)8.3 (7.30–24.0)1.00
19 - ≤3655 (109)50.5 (41.1–59.8)0.02
37 - ≤5973 (188)38.8 (31.6–45.8)0.06
≥6039 (129)30.2 (22.3–38.2)0.01
Birth weight, g< 250011 (30)36.7 (19.4–54.0)1.00
≥2500146 (384)38.0 (33.1–42.9)0.88
Birth height, cm< 4810 (20)50.0 (28.1–71.9)1.00
≥48146 (397)36.8 (32.0–41.5)0.24
BreastfeedingNone or < 3 months32 (62)51.6 (39.2–64.1)1.00
≥3 months136 (208)65.4 (58.9–71.8)0.14
Living in Arkhangelsk since birthYes152 (395)38.5 (33.7–43.3)1.00
No11 (37)29.7 (15.0–44.5)0.38
Any disease within a month prior studyYes115 (302)38.1 (32.6–43.4)1.00
No52 (131)39.7 (31.3–48.1)0.75
Average number of respiratory tract infections per year since birthNever or rare31 (88)33.7 (23.9–43.5)1.00
Less than 6 times per year77(211)37.5 (30.9–44.0)0.76
More than 6 times per year58 (135)42.2 (33.8–50.6)0.58
Regular medicationYes15 (36)41.7 (25.6–57.8)1.00
No149 (394)37.8 (33.0–42.6)0.72
Highest education parent(s)Secondary professional school or higher225 (604)37.3 (33.4–41.1)1.00
Secondary, primary or non-specified86 (207)41.5 (34.8–48.3)0.31
Sibling(s) < 5 yearsYes28 (68)41.2 (29.5–52.9)1.00
No137 (234)58.5 (50.5–66.6)0.06
Number of rooms1–292 (262)35.1 (29.3–40.9)1.00
≥374 (173)42.8 (35.4–50.2)0.47
Passive smokingYes111 (189)58.7 (51.7–65.7)1.00
No48 (125)38.4 (29.9–46.9)0.12
  1. Values are number of subjects (%) if not otherwise stated
  2. ªNumber may vary due to missing data
  3. bConfidence intervals (CI) and p-values were calculated by two-tailed Fisher’s Exact Test
  4. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant