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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of observed patients

From: Burden of Staphylococcus aureus infections after orthopedic surgery in Germany

CharacteristicAll observed patientsPatients with a hip surgeryPatients with a knee surgeryPatients with a spine surgeryPatients with SAI in the 365-d follow-upPatients w/o SAI in the 365-d follow-upp-value for differences between patients with/without SAI
N74,32729,42921,28523,613143072,897 
Age in years; Mean (SD)69.59 (13.41)74.09 (11.63)70.39 (9.56)63.25 (15.79)74.97 (11.54)69.48 (18.42)p < 0.001
Female sex; N (%)45,771 (61.58)18,912 (64.26)13,915 (65.37)12,944 (54.82)781 (54.62)44,990 (61.72)p < 0.001
CCI (12-month baseline period); Mean (SD)2.28 (2.42)2.48 (2.48)2.15 (2.15)2.14 (2.56)3.76 (2.95)2.25 (2.40)p < 0.001
Length of index hospitalization in days; Mean (SD)14.07 (9.12)15.37 (9.08)13.12 (6.04)13.29 (11.09)20.05 (15.27)13.95 (8.92)p < 0.001
Type of index surgery
Primary surgery; N (%)45,706 (61.49)26,427 (89.80)19,279 (90.58)816 (57.06)44,890 (61.58)p < 0.001
Revisional/exchange/removal surgery; N (%)3874 (5.21)2265 (7.70)1609 (7.56)116 (8.11)3758 (5.12)p < 0.001
Unspecifieda; N (%)1134 (1.53)737 (2.50)397 (1.87)36 (2.52)1098 (1.51)p = 0.002
Spinal fusion; N(%)6554 (8.82)6554 (27.76)139 (9.72)6415 (8.80)p = 0.224
Other spine surgeries; N(%)17,059 (22.95)17,059 (72.24)323 (22.59)16,736 (22.96)p = 0.741
Complications due to prosthetic devices/ implants/grafts during index hospitalization; N (%)4298 (5.78)2405 (8.17)1730 (8.13)163 (0.69)131 (9.16)4167 (5.72)p < 0.001
Recent fractures at the location of index surgery (3 months baseline period); N (%)16,123 (21.69)8963 (30.46)592 (2.78)6568 (27.82)627 (43.85)15,496 (21.26)p < 0.001
Bacterial infections (not caused by any Staphylococci) during index hospitalization; N (%)4091 (5.50)2142 (7.28)644 (3.03)1305 (5.53)208 (14.55)3883 (5.33)p < 0.001
Outpatient prescriptions of antibiotics (12 months baseline period); Mean (SD)0.60 (1.18)0.56 (1.17)0.61 (1.14)0.64 (1.24)0.84 (1.57)0.60 (1.17)p < 0.001
Follow-up period within 365 days follow-up in days, censored at; Mean (SD)
Death351.34 (61.32)341.98 (79.29)362.33 (26.45)353.09 (56.11)324.46 (88.71)351.86 (60.54)p < 0.001
Death or infection date347.95 (67.65)337.93 (84.89)359.81 (36.66)349.74 (62.93)148.23 (101.97)351.86 (60.54)p < 0.001
Death, infection date or date of any next surgery not performed at the same body location as index surgery318.28 (100.74)313.66 (107.17)335.05 (80.22)308.93 (107.07)120.93 (94.73)322.15 (96.92)p < 0.001
  1. CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, S. aureus, Staphylococcus aureus;, SAI Staphylococcus aureus infection, SD Standard deviation, w/o without
  2. aKnee and hip surgeries for which both, implementation and revision/exchange/removel OPS-codes were coded