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Table 3 Univariable and multivariable multilevel logistic regression analyses between any pneumococcal carriage and factors previously associated with carriage; data of the 2006, 2008, 2013 and 2015 surveys were included

From: Changes in pneumococcal carriage prevalence and factors associated with carriage in Norwegian children, four years after introduction of PCV13

Factors previously associated with carriageUnivariable: Odds Ratio (OR) [95%CI]p-valuebMultivariable: Odds Ratio (OR) [95%CI]cp-valueb
Year of the study sample < 0.001
 20063.9 [2.9–5.1]   
 20084.5 [3.4–6.0]   
 20131.8 [1.5–2.2]   
 20151   
Age in months < 0.001 < 0.001
< 241 1 
 24–350.99 [0.74–1.3] 0.94 [0.70–1.3] 
 36–470.74 [0.56–0.98] 0.61 [0.46–0.82] 
 48–590.54 [0.41–0.70] 0.41 [0.31–0.54] 
 > = 600.39 [0.29–0.52] 0.31 [0.22–0.40] 
Cohabiting with siblings < 6 years old 0.204 0.402
 No1 1 
 Yes1.1 [0.95–1.3] 1.1 [0.91–1.3] 
Breastfed < 2 months 0.567 0.665
 No1 1 
 Yes1.1 [0.78–1.6] 1.1 [0.76–1.5] 
Passive smoking 0.685 0.895
 No1 1 
 Yes1.1 [0.81–1.4] 0.98 [0.73–1.3] 
Vaccinated < 0.001
 PCV71   
 PCV7 + 130.60 [0.45–0.80]   
 PCV130.98 [0.79–1.2]   
 Unvaccinated1.9 [1.5–2.4]   
Vaccine historyd < 0.001 < 0.001
 No1 1 
 Yes0.50 [0.39–0.64] 0.37 [0.29–0.47] 
RTIa last 3 months < 0.001
 No1   
 Yes0.58 [0.44–0.76]   
Use of antimicrobials last 3 months < 0.001 < 0.001
 No1 1 
 Yes0.48 [0.37–0.64] 0.42 [0.32–0.57] 
Size of day care centre 0.1905 0.7132
 10–29 children1 1 
 30–49 children1.3 [0.79–2.0] 1.2 [0.80–1.7] 
 50–69 children1.3 [0.81–1.9] 1.1 [0.80–1.6] 
 70–89 children1.6 [0.98–2.4] 1.2 [0.82–1.7] 
 90+ children2.0 [1.1–3.5] 1.4 [0.89–2.2] 
  1. aRTI Respiratory tract infection
  2. bSignificance for linear and binary variables was tested using single parameters Wald-tests; significance for categorical variables with more than two categories was tested using multiple parameter Wald-tests
  3. cIn the multivariable model we included the following variables: age in months, cohabitating with siblings < 6 months, breastfed < 2 months, passive smoking, vaccine history, use of antimicrobials last 3 months and size of day care centre
  4. dVaccine history was defined as being vaccinated with any PCV (yes/no; at least one dose), independent of vaccine type