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Table 3 Univariable and multivariable multilevel logistic regression analyses between any pneumococcal carriage and factors previously associated with carriage; data of the 2006, 2008, 2013 and 2015 surveys were included

From: Changes in pneumococcal carriage prevalence and factors associated with carriage in Norwegian children, four years after introduction of PCV13

Factors previously associated with carriage Univariable: Odds Ratio (OR) [95%CI] p-valueb Multivariable: Odds Ratio (OR) [95%CI]c p-valueb
Year of the study sample   < 0.001
 2006 3.9 [2.9–5.1]    
 2008 4.5 [3.4–6.0]    
 2013 1.8 [1.5–2.2]    
 2015 1    
Age in months   < 0.001   < 0.001
< 24 1   1  
 24–35 0.99 [0.74–1.3]   0.94 [0.70–1.3]  
 36–47 0.74 [0.56–0.98]   0.61 [0.46–0.82]  
 48–59 0.54 [0.41–0.70]   0.41 [0.31–0.54]  
 > = 60 0.39 [0.29–0.52]   0.31 [0.22–0.40]  
Cohabiting with siblings < 6 years old   0.204   0.402
 No 1   1  
 Yes 1.1 [0.95–1.3]   1.1 [0.91–1.3]  
Breastfed < 2 months   0.567   0.665
 No 1   1  
 Yes 1.1 [0.78–1.6]   1.1 [0.76–1.5]  
Passive smoking   0.685   0.895
 No 1   1  
 Yes 1.1 [0.81–1.4]   0.98 [0.73–1.3]  
Vaccinated   < 0.001
 PCV7 1    
 PCV7 + 13 0.60 [0.45–0.80]    
 PCV13 0.98 [0.79–1.2]    
 Unvaccinated 1.9 [1.5–2.4]    
Vaccine historyd   < 0.001   < 0.001
 No 1   1  
 Yes 0.50 [0.39–0.64]   0.37 [0.29–0.47]  
RTIa last 3 months   < 0.001
 No 1    
 Yes 0.58 [0.44–0.76]    
Use of antimicrobials last 3 months   < 0.001   < 0.001
 No 1   1  
 Yes 0.48 [0.37–0.64]   0.42 [0.32–0.57]  
Size of day care centre   0.1905   0.7132
 10–29 children 1   1  
 30–49 children 1.3 [0.79–2.0]   1.2 [0.80–1.7]  
 50–69 children 1.3 [0.81–1.9]   1.1 [0.80–1.6]  
 70–89 children 1.6 [0.98–2.4]   1.2 [0.82–1.7]  
 90+ children 2.0 [1.1–3.5]   1.4 [0.89–2.2]  
  1. aRTI Respiratory tract infection
  2. bSignificance for linear and binary variables was tested using single parameters Wald-tests; significance for categorical variables with more than two categories was tested using multiple parameter Wald-tests
  3. cIn the multivariable model we included the following variables: age in months, cohabitating with siblings < 6 months, breastfed < 2 months, passive smoking, vaccine history, use of antimicrobials last 3 months and size of day care centre
  4. dVaccine history was defined as being vaccinated with any PCV (yes/no; at least one dose), independent of vaccine type