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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with CAP at admission to hospital (n = 30)

From: Gaps between current clinical practice and evidence-based guidelines for treatment and care of older patients with Community Acquired Pneumonia: a descriptive cross-sectional study

Diagnostic characteristicsFrequency, n (%) or median (IQR)
Gender/male,16 (53.3)
Age, median (IQR)74 (69.8–84.5)
Smokers5 (16.7)
Penicillin allergy1 (3.3)
Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS) < 610 (33.3)
Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), median (IQR)2 (1.0–3.0)
Nutritional deficiencies,23 (76.7)
Fever (≥38 °C)13 (43.3)
C-reactive protein (> 10 mg/L)28 (93.3)
Sputum production25 (83.3)
Dyspnoea26 (86.7)
Chills4 (13.3)
Pleuritic chest pain3 (10.0)
Confusion7 (23.3)
Pulse rate > 10013 (43.3)
Respiratory rate ≥ 30 breaths/min4 (13.3)
Cough25 (83.3)
CURB-65 score: 0–1 points9 (30.0)
CURB-65 score: 2 points13 (43.3)
CURB-65 score: ≥3 points8 (26.7)
Recent travel (≤2 weeks)3 (10.0)
Responding to treatment ≤48 h20 (71.4)a
Length of hospital stay, median (IQR)6.5 (3.0–14.3)
In-hospital mortality3 (10.0)
Readmission ≤1 month11 (40.7)b
Post discharge mortality ≤1 month2 (7.4)b
  1. aAdjusted for 2 patients who were discharged ≤24 h of admission
  2. bAdjusted for in-hospital mortality on 27 patients
  3. CCI = Charlson Comorbidity Index is calculated based on 19 predefined comorbidities with assigned weights of 1, 2, 3, or 6 and summed to the total CCI score. CAS=Cumulated Ambulation Score is calculated by assessing 3 activities (1. getting in and out of bed, 2. sitting down and standing up from a chair, 3. walking ability with or without a walking aid) on a three-point scale
  4. (2 = independent of human assistance or guidance, 1 = requiring human assistance or guidance to perform activity, 0 = unable to perform activity despite human assistance). The score for each activity is cumulated to provide a daily range from 0 to 6. CAS score < 6 indicates dependent of human assistance. CURB-65 = severity assessment score is calculated by giving 1 point for each of the following prognostic features: Confusion, Urea>7 mmol/l, Respiratory rate >30 breaths/minute, Low systolic (<90 mmHg) or diastolic (<60 mmHg) blood pressure, ≥65 years. The total sum is stratified for CAP severity: (score 0–1) low severity; (score 2) moderate severity; (score 3–5) high severity