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Table 1 Associations of variables with viral non-suppression among HIV infected adolescents and adult patients on ART in Northern Ethiopia. (n = 19,525)

From: HIV virological non-suppression and factors associated with non-suppression among adolescents and adults on antiretroviral therapy in northern Ethiopia: a retrospective study

VariableCategoryViral suppression statusTotal n (%)COR(95% CI)AOR (95% CI)
Suppressed, n (%)Non suppressed, n (%)
GenderFemale9738 (67.76)3128 (60.70)12,866 (65.90)1 (Ref.) 
Male4634 (32.24)2025 (39.30)6659 (34.10)1.36 (1.27, 1.45)***1.27 (1.18, 1.37) ***
Pregnant motherNo9659 (99.19)3112 (99.49)12,771 (99.26)1 (Ref.)1 (Ref.)
Yes79 (0.81)16 (0.51)95 (0.74)0.63 (0.37, 1.08) 
Lactating motherNo9577 (98.35)3087 (98.69)12,664 (98.43)1 (Ref.) 
Yes161 (1.65)41 (1.31)202 (1.57)0.79 (0.56, 1.12) 
Age category15–19204 (1.42)216 (4.19)420 (2.15)3.67 (2.97, 4.53) ***4.86 (3.86, 6.12) ***
20–24391 (2.72)164 (3.18)555 (2.84)1.45 (1.19, 1.78) ***1.96 (1.57, 2.45) ***
25–291312 (9.13)520 (10.09)1832 (9.38)1.37 (1.20, 1.57) ***1.79 (1.55, 2.08) ***
30–342757 (19.18)959 (18.61)3716 (19.03)1.21 (1.08, 1.35) ***1.46 (1.29, 1.65) ***
35–393113 (21.6)1117 (21.68)4230 (21.66)1.24 (1.11, 1.39) ***1.43 (1.27, 1.61) ***
40–442749 (19.13)964 (18.71)3713 (19.02)1.21 (1.08, 1.36) ***1.22 (1.08, 1.39) ***
45–491587 (11.04)561 (10.89)2148 (11.00)1.22 (1.08, 1.39) **1.22 (1.06, 1.40) **
50+2259 (15.72)652 (12.6)2911 (14.91)1 (Ref.)1 (Ref.)
AgeMedian (IQR)38 (32–45)37 (30–44)38 (31–45)  
Facility ownershipGovernment13,713 (95.41)4958 (96.22)18,671 (95.63)1.20 (1.02, 1.41) *1.09 (0.89, 1.33)
Non-governmental organization645 (4.49)195 (3.78)840 (4.30)1 (Ref.) 
Private14 (0.10)014 (0.07)___ 
Facility typeClinic30 (0.21)13 (0.25)43 (0.22)1.35 (0.69, 2.61) 
Health center4191 (29.16)1491 (28.93)5682 (29.10)1.11 (0.97,1.26) 
Primary Hospital1428 (9.94)703 (13.64)2131 (10.91)1.53 (1.32, 1.77) ***1.26 (1.05, 1.52) *
General Hospital7315 (50.90)2514 (48.79)9829 (50.34)1.07 (0.94, 1.21) 
Referral Hospital1134 (7.89)365 (7.08)1499 (7.68)1 (Ref.) 
Other274 (1.91)67 (1.30)341 (1.75)0.76 (0.57, 1.02) 
Service provided at military health care facilityNo13,837 (96.28)5013 (97.28)18,850 (96.54)1.38 (1.15, 1.67) ***1.47 (1.15, 1.89) **
Yes535 (3.72)140 (2.72)675 (3.46)1 (Ref.)1 (Ref.)
WHO StagingI13,255 (92.23)4574 (88.76)17,829 (91.31)1 (Ref.)1 (Ref.)
II481 (3.35)294 (5.71)775 (3.97)1.77 (1.53, 2.06) ***1.31 (1.10, 1.54) **
III248 (1.73)160 (3.10)408 (2.09)1.87 (1.53, 2.29) ***1.12 (0.89, 1.40)
IV388 (2.70)125 (2.43)513 (2.63)0.93 (0.76, 1.15) 
AdherencePoor123 (0.86)163 (3.16)286 (1.46)3.92 (3.09, 4.96) ***2.56 (1.97, 3.33) ***
Fair413 (2.87)309 (6.00)722 (3.70)2.21 (1.90, 2.57) ***1.61 (1.36, 1.90) **
Good13,836 (96.27)4681 (90.84)18,517 (94.84)1 (Ref.)1 (Ref.)
Virological test reasonRoutine First VL8910 (62)3049 (51.17)11,959 (61.25)1.41 (1.31, 1.52) ***1.35 (1.25, 1.46) ***
Routine annual VL Test4856 (33.79)1176 (22.82)6032 (30.89)1 (Ref.)1 (Ref.)
Suspected ART failure-Clinical22 (0.15)28 (0.54)50 (0.26)5.26 (3.00, 9.22) ***3.37 (1.86, 6.12) **
Suspected ART failure-immunological38 (0.26)43 (0.83)81 (0.41)4.67 (3.01, 7.26) ***2.19 (1.36, 3.51) ***
Suspected ART Failure initial VL301 (2.09)790 (15.33)1091 (5.59)10.84 (9.35, 12.56) ***7.62 (6.53, 8.90) ***
Not indicated in the form245 (1.70)67 (1.30)312 (1.60)1.13 (0.86, 1.49) 
CD4 baseline< 200 cells/micro liter6950 (48.36)2737 (53.11)9687 (49.61)1.50 (1.34, 1.68) ***1.33 (1.14, 1.54) ***
200–499 cell/ micro liter5653 (39.33)1952 (37.88)7605 (38.95)1.32 (1.17, 1.48) ***1.32 (1.15, 1.50) ***
+ 500 cells/ micro liter1769 (12.31)464 (9.01)2233 (11.44)1 (Ref.)1 (Ref.)
CD4 baselineMedian (IQR)206 (116–348)188 (103–320)201 (112–341)  
CD4 Recent< 200 cells/micro liter1542 (10.73)1501 (29.13)3043 (15.59)5.25 (4.78, 5.77) ***3.78 (3.34, 4.27) ***
200–499 cell/ micro liter6441 (44.82)2468 (47.89)8909 (45.63)2.07 (1.91, 2.23) ***1.89 (1.73, 2.06) ***
+ 500 cells/ micro liter6389 (44.45)1184 (22.98)7573 (38.79)1 (Ref.)1 (Ref.)
CD4 RecentMedian (IQR)463 (307–648)309 (180–480)423 (264–611)  
Regimen1c (AZT-3TC-NVP)4147 (28.85)1685 (32.70)5832 (29.87)1.30 (1.21, 1.40) ***1.32 (1.22, 1.44) ***
 1d (AZT-3TC-EFV)1362 (9.48)545 (10.58)1907 (9.77)1.28 (1.15, 1.43) ***1.31 (1.16, 1.48) ***
1e (TDF-3TC-EFV)7155 (49.78)2235 (43.37)9390 (48.09)1 (Ref.)1 (Ref.)
1f(TDF-3TC-NVP)1559 (10.85)583 (11.31)2142 (10.97)1.20 (1.08, 1.33) ***1.30 (1.16, 1.46) ***
1 g (ABC-3TC-EFV)5 (0.035)1 (0.019)6 (0.03)0.64 (0.07, 5.48) 
1 h(ABC-3TC-NVP)4 (0.028)3 (0.058)7 (0.04)2.40 (0.54, 10.74) 
2a (ABC-ddl-LPV/R), 2c (TDF-ddl-LPV/R), 2d(TDF-ddl-NFV)& 2 g (TDF-3TC-LPV/r)8 (0.056)4 (0.078)12 (0.06)1.60 (0.48, 5.32) 
2f (AZT-3TC-ATV/r)39 (0.27)23 (0.446)62 (0.32)1.89 (1.13, 3.17) *1.65 (0.95, 2.86)
2 h (TDF-3TC-ATV/R)93 (0.65)74 (1.436)167 (0.86)2.55 (1.87, 3.47) ***1.79 (1.27, 2.52) ***
TreatmentFirst line14,232 (99.03)5052 (98.04)19,284 (98.77)1 (Ref.)1 (Ref.)
Second line140 (0.97)101 (1.96)241 (1.23)2.03 (1.57, 2.63) ***Omitted
Immunological response after ART initiationDeclined2133 (14.84)1406 (27.29)3539 (18.13)2.16 (2.00, 2.33) ***1.45 (1.30, 1.61) ***
No change183 (1.27)67 (1.30)250 (1.28)1.20 (0.90, 1.59)0.86 (0.64, 1.17)
Enhanced12,056 (83.89)3680 (71.41)15,736 (80.59)1 (Ref.)1 (Ref.)
  1. Notes: *significant at P-value of ≤0.05; ** significant at P-value of ≤0.01; significant at P-value of ≤0.001; Omitted, Collinearity effect was allowed to be omitted in the multivariable analysis
  2. Abbreviations: 3TC lamivudine; ABC abacavir; AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio; ATV/r atazanavir/ Ritonavir; AZT azidothymidine; CD-4 Cluster of Differentiation 4; COR Crude Odds Ratio; ddl didanosine; EFV efavirenz; LPV/R Lopinavir/Ritonavir; n number; NFV nelfinavir; NVP nevirapine; P-value, Precession value; Ref Referrence; TDF tenofovirdisoproxilfumarate