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Table 2 Health seeking behaviour, access to diagnosis, treatment and preventive services and risk factors for kala-azar (n = 50 kala-azar patients, unless stated otherwise)

From: Intensely clustered outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in a setting of seasonal migration in a village of Bihar, India

CharacteristicsN%
Health seeking behaviour and access to services
Type of health facility where care was first sought for fever
 Government PHC/ Government District hospital612
 Quack (unqualified practitioner)1836
 Private qualified physician1938
 Didn’t contact anyone (found first on active case search)612
Type of first health facility contact in context of migration
 With migration1020
 Without migration4080
Place of diagnosis of kala-azar
 District hospital3366
 In village during active case search1530
 Others (private facility)24
Person who motivated to get tested for kala-azar
 ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activist)3478
 ANM (Auxiliary Nursing Midwife)1326
 Self24
 Another community member12
Informed about single day treatment after diagnosis4182
Informed about monetary incentive of Rs 7100 (USD 100)4488
Received monetary incentive (n = 45)3680
Focal spray conducted within 2 weeks of fever onset2040
Quality of spray in preceding focal IRS of May 2017 (n = 42)
 All rooms and animal shelter(s) spayed2150
 One or more rooms or animal shelter(s) missed2150
Health worker asked for history of fever among other family members4692
Awareness
Awareness regarding mode of spread of Kala-azar
 Through sandfly bite1632
 Through mosquito bite1224
 Through dirty water2142
 Directly from infected person12
Awareness regarding duration for which walls should not be smeared or painted after IRS
 More than 90 days00
 60–90 days1224
 Less than 60 days1326
 Don’t know2550
Having awareness that animal shelter spraying is necessary for kala-azar prevention3162
Risk factors for kala-azar
Illiteracy4386
Belonging to scheduled caste4692
Occupation – labourer2856
Migration2958
Poverty (Per capita income per month < Rs 1000)4386
Domestic animal ownership1632
Animal shelter location within house714
Residing in thatched mud house without windows (kutcha house)2652
Sleeping in room with unplastered walls4590
Sleeping on floor2448
Non-use of mosquito net4080