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Table 4 Influenza typing, CSF analysis, neuroradiological imaging, clinical case definition, comorbidity, treatment and outcome

From: Characteristics and outcome of influenza-associated encephalopathy/encephalitis among children in a tertiary pediatric hospital in Italy, 2017–2019

Patient (n)Age (months)Influenza virus subtypeCSF analysisEEG patternBrain CT/MRIDiagnosisComorbidityOseltamivirSteroidsOutcome
17H3N2NormalGeneralized slowingNot performedEncephalitisnoyesnoRecovery without sequelae
21H1N1pleocytosis, elevated protein levelsNot performedNot performedEncephalitispulmonary stenosisnonoRecovery without sequelae
37H1N1NormalGeneralized slowingNot performedEncephalitisventriculomegalyyesyesRecovery without sequelae
420H1N1Not performedNot performedNot performedEncephalopathynonoNoRecovery without sequelae
514H1N1Not performedNot performedNot performedEncephalopathynonoNoRecovery without sequelae
638H1N1Not performedGeneralized slowing, focal abnormalitiesNot performedEncephalitisNonoNoRecovery without sequelae
727H1N1Not performedNormal findingsNot performedEncephalopathyepileptic encephalopathynoNoRecovery without sequelae
8120H1N1Not performedNormal findingsNot performedEncephalopathynononoRecovery without sequelae
972H3N2Normal findingsGeneralized slowingCT: normal findings
MRI: expansion of some perivascular spaces in periventricular white matter
EncephalitisepilepsynoyesRecovery without sequelae
106H1N1Normal findingsNormal findingsCT: Normal findings
MRI: not performed
EncephalopathyNononoRecovery without sequelae
1130H1N1Not performedConsistent with comorbidity (Dravet syndrome)CT: Normal findings
MRI: consistent with comorbidity (Dravet syndrome)
EncephalopathyNonoyesRecovery without sequelae
1225H1N1Normal findingsNormal findingsCT: Normal findings
MRI: cortical and subcortical areas DWI-hyperintense and ADC hypointense
EncephalitisDravet syndromenoyesMinimal sequelae
1348H1N1Not performedNot performedNot performedEncephalopathynononoRecovery without sequelae
1472BNot performedGeneralized slowingNot performedEncephalitisNononoRecovery without sequelae
1548H1N1Mildly elevated protein levelsFocal slow wave activityCT: Hypodensity of cerebral white matter at the vertex
MRI: diffusion-restricted areas in periventricular white matter and semioval center
EncephalitisNonoyesRecovery without sequelae