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Table 1 Univariate and multivariate analyses of the demographic, clinical characteristics, and risk factors in CDI groups

From: Risk factors for Clostridioides difficile infection and colonization among patients admitted to an intensive care unit in Shanghai, China

CharacteristicsCDI group
(n = 33)
non-CDI group
(n = 66)
Univariate AnalysisMultivariable logistic regression Analysis
n(%)/mean ± SDn(%)/mean ± SDOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Male22 (66.7)39 (60)0.722 (0.301–1.732)0.465  
Age (mean ± SD)54.15 ± 20.8958.97 ± 14.870.242  
Clinical features
Hospital duration (days)
(mean ± SD)
35.39 ± 27.6130.08 ± 33.110.429  
Fever (≥ 38 °C)19 (57.6)11 (16.7)6.786 (2.634–17.483)< 0.001*13.993 (3.292–59.472)< 0.001*
Leukocyte count (109 /L)
(mean ± SD)
9.79 ± 5.3510.61 ± 6.240.992  
Serum albumin (g/L)
(mean ± SD)
30.30 ± 6.0229.97 ± 7.010.816  
Serum creatinine rise> 50%
(μmol/L)
2 (6.06)12 (18.18)0.103  
Mortality6 (18.2)11 (16.7)1.111 (0.371–3.325)0.851  
Classification of primary diagnosis
Gastrointestinal29 (87.9)55 (83.8)1.45 (0.424–4.959)0.552  
Respiratory12 (36.4)26 (39.4)0.879 (0.37–2.086)0.770  
Cardiovascular6 (18.2)14 (21.2)0.825 (0.285–2.39)0.723  
Renal5 (15.2)17 (25.8)0.515 (0.171–1.546)0.231  
Neurologic8 (24.2)9 (13.6)2.027 (0.701–5.862)0.187  
Metabolic disorders22 (66.7)25 (37.9)3.28 (1.363–7.893)0.007*7.972 (1.767–35.971)0.007*
NO. of comorbiditiesa
1–215 (45.5)43 (65.2)0.037*  
3–416 (48.5)21 (31.8)
≥52 (6.1)1 (1.5)
Treatments and procedures
Surgical intervention7 (21.2)15 (22.7)0.915 (0.332–2.523)0.864  
Enteral feeding26 (78.8)33 (50)3.714 (1.416–9.74)0.006*  
PPI use17 (51.5)43 (65.2)0.568 (0.243–1.330)0.191  
Antibiotics use31 (93.9)57 (86.4)2.447 (0.497–12.042)0.258  
Antiviral drugs5 (15.2)1 (1.52)11.607 (1.296–103.948)0.007*  
Antifungal agents6 (18.2)6 (9.1)2.222 (0.657–7.522)0.191  
Cephalosporin9 (27.3)26 (29.4)0.577 (0.232–1.435)0.234  
Fluoroquinolone7 (21.2)2 (3.0)8.615 (1.678–44.247)0.003*42.696 (3.895–468.058)0.002*
Carbapenem24 (72.7)35 (53.0)2.362 (0.955–5.843)0.060  
Vancomycin10 (20.3)13 (19.7)1.773 (0.68–4.624)0.239  
Metronidazole5 (15.2)22 (33.3)0.357 (0.121–1.052)0.0560.042 (0.006–0.288)0.001*
NO. of antibiotics receiveda
02 (6.1)9 (13.6)0.024*2.856 (1.362–5.99)0.005*
1–220 (6.1)48 (72.7)
≥311 (33.3)9 (13.6)
  1. Numerical data are shown as mean ± SD, and categorical data are described as frequency (percentage)
  2. *P < 0.05
  3. aThe indicated variables were made categorical, and analyzed for differences between the two groups by the Cochran–Armitage trend test