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Table 3 Factors associated with EV infection in household contacts

From: Transmission and serotype features of hand foot mouth disease in household contacts in Dong Thap, Vietnam

Characteristics Laboratory confirmedx
(n=148)
Not Laboratory confirmed
(n=433)
Crude RR
[cRR]
95% CI P-value Adjusted RR
[aRR]
P-value
Relationship to index case
 Aunt/uncle/other 16 (10) 142 (90) 1.00     
 Grandparent 6 (9) 59 (91) 0.90 [0.34, 2.42] 0.84 1.13 0.81
 Sibling 31 (34) 60 (66) 4.90 [2.76, 8.71] <0.001 5.58 <0.001
 Parent 95 (36) 172 (64) 4.59 [2.34, 9.00] <0.001 5.70 <0.001
 Aunt/uncle/grandparent 22 (15) 201 (46) 1.00     
 Parent/sibling 126 (85) 232 (54) 4.96 [3.04, 8.11] <0.001 5.20 <0.001
Sex
 Female 89 (29) 221 (71) 1.00     
 Male 59 (22) 212 (78) 0.69 [0.47, 1.01] 0.06 0.61 0.02
Age
 <1 year 0 (0) 0 (0) -     
 1-<3 years 5 (36) 9 (64) 1.00     
 3-<6 years 7 (33) 14 (67) 0.90 [0.22, 3.73] 0.88 - -
 6-<15 years 15 (31) 33 (69) 0.82 [0.23, 2.86] 0.75 - -
 15+ 121 (24) 377 (76) 0.58 [0.19, 1.757] 0.33 - -
 <1 year 0 (0) 0 (0) -     
 1-<3 years 5 (36) 9 (64) 1.00     
 3+ years 153 (26) 424 (74) 0.607 [0.20, 1.84] 0.38 - -
Household size!
 <5 42 (30) 96 (70) 1.00     
 ≥5 106 (24) 337 (76) 0.72 [0.47, 1.09] 0.49 - -
Number of children in household
 <2 59 (25) 177 (75) 1.00     
 ≥2 89 (26) 256 (74) 1.06 [0.73, 1.56] 0.75 - -
Symptoms (household) ð
 Ill 6 (21) 22 (79) 0.84 [0.33, 2.13] 0.72   
 Fever 2 (18) 9 (82) 0.69 [0.15, 3.23] 0.63   
 HFMD 0 (0) 4 (100) - - -   
 Rash 0 (0) 1 (100) - - - - -
Toy sharing~
 No 10 (37) 23 (41) 1.00     
 Yes 17 (63) 33 (59) 1.19 [0.46, 3.05] 0.73 - -
  1. Values expressed as number (percentage within exposure group) unless otherwise indicated.
  2. X Defined as a positive RT-PCR, or a 4-fold change in a single EV-A71, CV-A6, CV-A16 (or more) serotype neutralizing antibody titers between sample 1 and sample 2.
  3. ! Mean household size 4.86 people, total n=150.
  4. ~ Defined as either index case or household contact (≤15yrs) stating yes to toy sharing. (n=83)
  5. ð Experienced illness in the past two weeks; Fever: experienced fever in the past two weeks; HFMD: experienced Hand, Foot and Mouth disease in the past 4 weeks; Rash: exhibited a sore on hand, foot or mouth in the past 4 weeks