Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Long term surgical outcomes for infective endocarditis in people who inject drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Year Published Location Period PWID n Age, mean ± SD Male, n (%) Maximum follow-up (years) Notes
Arbulu [39] 2000 Detroit, USA 1970–1990 Yes 55 NA ± NA 29 Kaplan Meier reported for 36 patients.
Asgeirsson [40] 2016 Karolinska, Sweden 2004–2013 Yes 10 38.7 ± 12.75 77 (64) 1 Data reported for surgical and non-surgical cases together.
     No 27 65.6 ± 8.25 96 (77) 1
Baraki [41] 2013 Hannover, Germany 1996–2012 Yes 9     Demographic data reported together. IPD reported in table but survival for survivors not reported.
     No 45 42 ± 16.2 37 (68.5) 5
Boyd [42] 1977 New York, USA 1970–1975 Yes 14 NA ± NA 15 Demographic data reported together. Kaplan Meier not separated by PWID and non-PWID.
     No 19 49 ± 21 19 (57.6) 15
Carozza [43] 2004 Naples, Italy 1980–2004 Yes 39 32.1 ± 8.1 35 (89.7) 10.5  
     No 85 33.4 ± 8.2 57 (67.1) 10.5  
Carrell [44] 1993 Zurich, Switzerland 1989–1991 Yes 10 23.4 ± 3.2 7 (70) 20 Reconstructed IPD from published table.
Dawood [45] 2015 Baltimore, USA 2002–2012 Yes 56 39 ± 12 23 (41.1) 11 Included 6 patients who were non-PWID
Frater [46, 47] 1989 Bronx, USA 1984–1987 Yes 9 NA ± NA 2.75 Reconstructed IPD from published table.
    1977–1980 Yes 10 NA ± NA 9 No Kaplan Meier or patient table.
  1990 Bronx, USA 1977–1989 Yes 57 NA ± NA 10 Combined previous cohorts
Hubbell [48] 1981 San Francisco, USA 1965–1976 Yes 27 33 ± 12.1 57 (72) 11 Demographic data reported together for surgical and non-surgical. Reconstructed IPD from published table.
Kaiser [49] 2007 St. Louis, USA 1986–2005 Yes 62 39 ± 9 37 (59.7) 19.1 Microbiologic data only for 31 of 62 in PWID.
     No 284 54 ± 15 185 (65.1) 18.8
Kim [50] 2016 Boston, USA 2002–2014 Yes 78 35.9 ± 9.9 48 (61.5) 10  
     No 358 59.3 ± 14.1 247 (69) 10  
Levitsky [51] 1982 Chicago, USA 1976–1981 Yes 37 34.6 ± NA 31 (83.8) 5 No SD reported. Age range 20–52
Mammana [52] 1983 Chicago, USA 1976–1979 Yes 18 33.7 ± 10.3 3 Reconstructed IPD from published table.
Martin-Davila [53] 2005 Madrid, Spain 1985–1999 Yes 26 33 ± NA 12 Non-PWID were excluded because they were not separated by surgical and non-surgical patients.
Marks [54] 2015 London, England 1998–2010 Yes 11 27.8 ± 4.8 52 days Data reported together for surgical and non-surgical
Mathew [55] 1995 Chicago, USA 1982–1991 Yes 80 37.7 ± 10 58 (72.5) 7.5  
Mestres [56] 2003 Barcelona, Spain 1985–2002 Yes 21 28.2 ± 6.5 18 (85.7) 10.8  
Nelson [57, 58] 1984 Los Angeles, USA 1972–1982 Yes 27 32.9 ± NA 37 (7110) 10 Demographic data reported together for PWID and non-PWID. Group D streptococcus counted as enterococcus.
No SD reported. Age range 9–58
     No 25 38 ± NA   10
Osterdal [59] 2016 Bergen, Norway 2001–2013 Yes 29 39.7 ± 11.2 27 (93.1) 9.4  
Pfannmueller [60] 2015 Leipzing, Germany 1995–2012 Yes 11 33.5 ± 4.29 8 (72.7) 15  
     No 45 60.1 ± NA 31 (68.9) 15 Used meta-analysis of mean of two non-PWID groups to obtain mean age
Rabkin [61] 2012 Seattle, USA 1999–2010 Yes 64 43.5 ± 10.9 45 (70.3) 6.6 Grouped S. aureus and CONS. For analysis, considered as S. aureus.
     No 133 48.4 ± 17.9 97 (72.9) 10.3  
Shetty [62] 2016 Nova Scotia, Canada 2008–2011 Yes 7 33.4 ± 12.1 4 (57.1) 2 Reconstructed IPD from published table.
Shrestha [63] 2015 Cleveland, USA 2007–2012 Yes 41 38 ± 11 26 (63.4) 6  
     No 495 59 ± 14 342 (69.1) 6.4  
Silverman [64] 1984 Chicago, USA 1976–1983 Yes 14 NA ± NA 11 (78.6) 7  
Thalme [10] 2009 Stockholm, Sweden 1994–2000 Yes 60 39 ± 5.9 31 (51.7) 3.3 Combines both surgical and non-surgical. Reason for differences in n (5 PWID and 27 non-PWID)
     No 135 64 ± 19.2 75 (55.6) 9.4  
Weymann [65] 2014 Heidelberg, Germany 1993–2013 Yes 20 35 ± 7.7 13 (65) 16.6  
Ying [66] 2013 Ottawa, Canada 2003–2012 Yes 24 39.4 ± 2.1 17 (70.8) 10 Reported as abstract, never published.
     No 171 59.1 ± 1 127 (74.3) 10  
  1. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, PWID People who inject drugs, non-PWID people who do not inject drugs, SD standard deviation