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Table 5 Bivariate analysis of the association of the practices and history of poor obstetric outcomes with BV and VVC among women attending the PHC centers in Sana’a city, Yemen (2017)

From: Bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis and trichomonal vaginitis among reproductive-aged women seeking primary healthcare in Sana’a city, Yemen

Variable N BV VVC
n (%) OR (95% CI) P-value n (%) OR (95% CI) P-value
Using IUCD
 No 242 63 (26.0) Reference 0.020 21 (8.7) Reference 0.406
 Yes 104 40 (38.5) 1.8 (1.09–2.89) 12 (11.5) 1.4 (0.65–2.91)
Using local antibiotics
 No 148 48 (32.4) Reference 0.349 14 (9.5) Reference 0.966
 Yes 198 55 (27.8) 0.8 (0.50–1.27) 19 (9.6) 1.0 (0.49–2.09)
Using systemic antibiotics
 No 181 57 (31.5) Reference 0.463 13 (7.2) Reference 0.118
 Yes 165 46 (27.9) 0.8 (0.53–1.34) 20 (12.1) 1. 8 (0.86–3.71)
Smoking
 No 276 76 (27.5) Reference 0.071 26 (9.4) Reference 0.883
 Yes 70 27 (38.6) 1.7 (0.95–2.86) 7 (10.0) 1.1 (0.44–2.57)
History of miscarriage
 No 216 75 (34.7) Reference 0.009 23 (10.6) Reference 0.365
 Yes 130 28 (21.5) 0.5 (0.31–0.85) 10 (7.7) 0.7 (0.32–1.52)
History of preterm labor
 No 311 89 (28.6) Reference 0.163 28 (9.0) Reference 0.313
 Yes 35 14 (40.0) 1.7 (0.81–3.42) 5 (14.3) 1.7 (0.61–4.69)
Using sanitary napkins
 Yes 301 90 (29.9) Reference 0.890 29 (9.6) Reference 0.874
 No 45 13 (28.9) 1.0 (0.48–1.89) 4 (8.9) 0.9 (0.31–2.74)
Regular vaginal douching
 Yes 111 27 (24.3) Reference 0.128 9 (8.1) Reference 0.534
 No 235 76 (32.3) 1.5 (0.89–2.48) 24 (10.2) 1.3 (0.58–2.87)
Drying genital area
 Yes 130 32 (24.6) Reference 0.104 9 (6.9) Reference 0.199
 No 216 71 (32.9) 1.5 (0.92–2.45) 24 (11.1) 1.7 (0.76–3.74)
Privacy of toilet
 Personal 96 33 (34.4) Reference 0.246 9 (9.4) Reference 0.949
 Shared 250 70 (28.0) 0.7 (0.45–1.23) 24 (9.6) 1.0 (0.46–2.29)
Toilet type
 Arabic 331 96 (29.0) Reference 0.143 23 (10.1) Reference 0.699
 European 15 7 (46.7) 2.1 (0.76–6.07) 10 (8.4) 0.8 (0.37–1.77)
Preferred clothing
 Wide clothes 279 84 (30.1) Reference 0.779 28 (10.0) Reference 0.520
 Tight clothes 67 19 (28.4) 0.9 (0.51–1.66) 5 (7.5) 0.7 (0.27–1.95)
Method of genital area cleaning
 Forward 212 60 (28.3) Reference 0.453 23 (10.8) Reference 0.296
 Backward 134 60 (32.1) 1.2 (0.75–1.92) 10 (7.5) 0.7 (0.31–1.44)
  1. N number of examined women, n number of infected women, BV bacterial vaginosis, VVC vulvovaginal candidiasis, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, IUCD intrauterine contraceptive device