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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of patients with infective endocarditis

From: The clinical features and prognosis of infective endocarditis in the elderly from 2007 to 2016 in a tertiary hospital in China

Variables % or Mean ±SD <50 years old
n = 205
(50.6%)
50-64 years old
n = 141
(34.8%)
≥65 years old
n = 59
(14.6%)
P value
Clinical data
 Male 127 (62.0) 93 (66.0) 41 (69.5) .508
 Age 35 ± 9 57 ± 4 72 ± 5 P<0.001
 Hospital stay 24 ±19 28 ±27 23 ±19 .295
 Duration of symptoms before echocardiography 30 ± 37 24 ± 27 24 ± 34 .174
 Duration of symptoms before diagnosis 42 ± 39 42 ± 44 42 ± 58 .991
 Time interval from diagnosis to surgery 23.5 (8–55.5) 16 (6.5–54) 30 (11.5–64) .322
 Time interval from embolism to diagnosis 4 ± 3 13 ± 17 11 ± 10 .001
 Time interval from cerebral embolism to diagnosis 4 ± 2 16 ± 21 13 ± 12 .006*
IE localization
 Native valve 191 (93.2) 128 (90.8) 49 (83.1) .059
 Mitral 61 (30.0) 44 (31.2) 15 (25.4)  
 Aortic 54 (26.3) 56 (40.0) 18 (30.5)  
 Mitro-aortic 31 (15.1) 17 (12.1) 8 (13.5)  
 Right valves 23 (11.2) 2 (1.4) 4 (6.8)  
 Prosthetic valve 13 (6.3) 10 (7.1) 8 (13.6) .176
 Mitral 4 (2.0) 4 (2.8) 3 (5.1)  
Aortic 5 (2.4) 4 (2.8) 3 (5.1)  
Mitro-aortic 1 (0.5) 0 1 (1.7)  
 Pacemaker 1 (0.5) 3 (2.1) 2 (3.4) .191
 Community origin 187 (91.2) 124 (87.9) 47 (79.7) .050
 Nosocomial origin 3 (1.5) 6 (4.3) 6 (10.2) .007
Comorbidities
Predisposing cardiac conditions
 Rheumatic heart disease 28 (13.7) 30 (21.3) 11 (18.6) .169
 Congenital heart disease 71 (34.6) 23 (16.3) 10 (16.9) P<0.001
 Previous cardiac surgery 16 (7.8) 14 (9.9) 14 (23.7) .002
 Degenerative heart disease 1 (0.5) 6 (4.3) 6 (10.2) .001
 Chronic pulmonary disease 1 (0.5) 3 (2.1) 2 (3.4) .191
 History of cancer 3 (1.5) 6 (4.3) 2 (3.4) .275
 Hemodialysis 3 (1.5) 7 (5.0) 4 (6.8) .069
 Liver cirrhosis 2 (1.0) 1 (0.7) 1 (1.7) .813
 Hypertension 14 (6.8) 43 (30.5) 25 (42.4) P<0.001
 Diabetes 2 (1.0) 25 (17.7) 10 (16.9) P<0.001
 Intravenous drug abuse 2 (1.0) 0 1 (1.7) .250
 Immunodepression 17 (8.3) 12 (8.5) 4 (6.8) .915
 Bad oral hygiene 57 (27.8) 45 (31.9) 29 (49.2) .008
Symptoms and signs
 Fever 186 (90.7) 125 (88.7) 53 (89.8) .820
 Anemia 116 (56.6) 68 (48.2) 38 (64.4) .085
 Osler nodule 5 (2.4) 1 (0.7) 1 (1.7) .439
 Janeway lesions or nailbed bleeding 3 (1.5) 1 (0.7) 0 .601
 New or changing heart murmur 172 (83.9) 110 (78.0) 45 (76.3) .253
 Hepatomegaly 10 (4.9) 9 (6.4) 2 (3.4) .658
 Splenomegaly 68 (33.2) 28 (19.9) 13 (22.0) .015
Echocardiographic data
 Vegetation length     .029
 <10 mm 35 (17.1) 36 (25.5) 18 (30.5)  
  ≥ 10 mm 146 (71.2) 83 (58.9) 30 (50.8)  
 No vegetation 24 (11.7) 22 (15.6) 11 (18.6)  
 Vegetation mobility 84 (41.0) 47 (33.3) 26 (44.1) .238
 Moderate or severe valve regurgitation 29 (14.2) 17 (12.4) 12 (20.3) .547
 Moderate or severe valve stenosis 11 (5.4) 27 (19.7) 5 (8.5) .001
 Abscess 25 (12.2) 17 (12.1) 8 (13.6) .953
 Annular abscess 13 (6.4) 10 (7.1) 7 (11.9) .365
 Pseudoaneurysm 18 (8.8) 7 (5.0) 2 (3.4) .207
 Valvular perforation 32 (15.8) 27 (19.1) 13 (22.0) .480
Microbiology
 Streptococci 53 (25.9) 34 (24.1) 13 (22.0) .819
 Streptococcus viridans 22 (10.7) 9 (6.4) 3 (5.1) .219
 Staphylococci 40 (19.5) 28 (19.9) 11 (18.6) .981
Staphylococcus aureus 17 (8.3) 9 (6.4) 2 (3.4) .405
 Coagulase-negative staphylococci 23 (11.2) 19 (13.5) 9 (15.3) .660
 Enterococci 2 (1.0) 2 (1.4) 1 (1.7)  
 Fungi 0 2 (1.4) 1 (1.7)  
 Polymicrobial 1 (0.5) 1 (0.7) 0  
Complications
 Heart failure 101 (49.3) 76 (53.9) 37 (62.7) .181
 Total emboli 57 (27.8) 45 (31.9) 23 (39.0) .247
 Emboli under treatment 60 (29.3) 35 (24.8) 12 (20.3) .339
 Intracranial infection 12 (5.9) 4 (2.8) 1 (1.7) .227
 Cerebral emboli 31 (15.1) 29 (20.6) 14 (23.7) .219
 Cerebral hemorrhage, 14 (6.8) 7 (5.0) 2 (3.4) .544
 Arrhythmia 24 (11.7) 33 (23.4) 23 (39.0) P<0.001
 Atrial fibrillation 15 (7.3) 29 (20.6) 20 (33.9) P<0.001
 Apparition of atrioventricular block 4 (2.0) 4 (2.8) 4 (6.8) .155
 Hepatic insufficiency 43 (21.0) 22 (15.6) 6 (10.2) .119
 Renal insufficiency 34 (16.6) 29 (20.6) 18 (30.5) .061
Surgery and mortality
 Surgical indication 204 (99.5) 140 (99.3) 57 (96.6) .142
 Surgery indicated and performed 128 (62.4) 83 (58.9) 24 (40.7) .012
Reason of no surgery
 Medical treatment 61 (80.3) 46 (80.7) 23 (69.7)  
 Death before surgery 12 (15.8) 11 (19.3) 10 (30.3) .216
 Patient’s refusal 3 (3.9) 0 0  
 In-hospital mortality 16 (7.8) 15 (10.6) 12 (20.3) .023**
 One-year mortality 18 (8.8) 15 (10.6) 12 (20.3) .044
Cause of death     .124
 Heart failure 0 5 (33.3) 3 (25.0)  
 Sepsis 10 (55.6) 6 (40.0) 5 (41.7)  
 Cerebral hemorrhage Brain palsy 6 (33.3) 1 (6.7) 2 (16.7)  
 Life-threatening arrhythmias 1 (5.6) 1 (6.7) 1 (8.3)  
 Others 1 (5.6) 2 (13.3) 1 (8.3)  
  1. IQR interquartile range, IE Infective endocarditis
  2. *p = 0.051: < 50 years group vs ≥65 years group p = 0.526:50–64 years group vs ≥65 years group
  3. ** p = 0.006 < 50 years group vs ≥65 years group p = 0.067 50–64 years group vs ≥65 years group