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Table 4 Factors associated with HCV and HBV screening history during lifetime, 2016-Health Barometer, mainland France, 2016 (univariate and multivariate analyses)

From: HCV and HBV prevalence based on home blood self-sampling and screening history in the general population in 2016: contribution to the new French screening strategy

Characteristics HCV (n = 20,029) HBV (n = 20,029)
wHB % aPR 95% CI p wHB % aPR 95% CI p
Gender
 Women 18.6 ref    35.6 ref   
 Men 19.9 1.01 0.94-1.09 NS 35.7 1.01 0.96-1.06 NS
Age (in years) ***     ***    
 15-30 21.3 ref    34.5 ref   
 31-45 24.4 1.09 0.99-1.20 NS 44.2 1.23 1.16-1.31 < 10 −3
 46-60 18.6 0.92 0.84-1.02 NS 36.5 1.22 1.14-1.31 < 10 − 3
 61-75 10.8 0.57 0.50-0.64 < 10 −3 24.8 0.92 0.85-1.00 NS
Educational level ***     ***    
  < Secondary school certificate 15.5 ref    30.4 ref   
 Secondary school certificate 20.2 1.22 1.11-1.34 < 10 −3 37.8 1.18 1.11-1.25 < 10 − 3
 Higher education qualification 25.5 1.50 1.38-1.63 < 10 −3 43.9 1.28 1.21-1.35 < 10 −3
Household monthly income      ***    
 1st tercile (low) 18.6     33.6 ref   
 2nd and 3rd tercile 19.7     36.9 1.09 1.03-1.15 < 10 −2
Place of residence ***     ***    
 Other regions 18.1 ref    34.5 ref   
 Ile-de-France (Paris region) 23.9 1.12 1.02-1.22 < 0.05 40.3 1.02 0.96-1.08 NS
Level of urbanization ***     ***    
 Rural 15.6 ref    31.5 ref   
  < 99,999 inhabitants 17.7 1.09 0.99-1.21 NS 33.6 1.05 0.99-1.12 NS
  ≥ 100,000 inhabitants or Paris urban area 22.0 1.17 1.06-1.30 < 10 −2 38.9 1.11 1.04-1.18 < 10 −2
Health Insurance coverage for low-income personsa ***     ***    
 No 18.9 ref    35.2 ref   
 Yes 25.7 1.29 1.11-1.50 < 10 −2 42.7 1.21 1.09-1.34 < 10 −3
HBV endemicity in country of birthc      ***    
 Low      34.7 ref   
 Intermediate      39.6 1.13 1.03-1.23 < 10 −2
 High      50.1 1.22 1.08-1.37 < 10 − 2
HCV endemicity in country of birthc ***        
 Low 18.8 ref       
 Intermediate or high 24.9 1.15 0.98-1.33 NS     
Blood transfusion before 1992 *        
 No 19.1 ref       
 Yes 22.1 1.33 1.17-1.52 < 10 −3     
Healthcare or stays ≥3 months in Africa, Asia or Middle East ***     ***    
 No 18.5 ref    34.6 ref   
 Yes 24.6 1.16 1.17-1.52 < 10 −3 43.1 1.09 1.01-1.17 < 0.05
Drug use during lifetime ***     ***    
 No 18.1 ref    34.6 ref   
 Yes, intravenous use with or without nasal use 64.7 3.09 2.50-3.82 < 10 −3 64.8 1.68 1.38-2.05 < 10 − 3
 Yes, nasal use only 37.8 1.71 1.51-1.93 < 10 −3 53.1 1.36 1.25-1.48 < 10 −3
Tattooing or piercing without single-use materials
 No 16.9     35.7    
 Yes 19.3     33.4    
Lived with or sexual intercourse with an HBV infected person      ***    
 Yes      34.7 ref   
 No      60.7 1.55 1.43-1.67 < 10 −3
Sex with other men during lifetime ***     ***    
 No 18.8 ref    35.3 ref   
 Yes 40.7 1.68 1.42-1.98 < 10 −3 54.3 1.31 1.16-1.48 < 10 − 3
Sexually transmitted infection(s) in the previous 12 monthsd ***     ***    
 No 19.1 ref    35.4 ref   
 Yes 37.3 1.37 1.11-1.69 < 10 −2 61.9 1.33 1.14-1.55 < 10 −3
HBV vaccination      ***    
 No      27.0 ref   
 Yes      45.7 1.59 1.51-1.67 < 10 −3
  1. wHB % Health Barometer weighted percentage, aPR adjusted prevalence ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, NS Not significant
  2. * P-value < 0.05, ** P value < 0.01, *** P value < 0.001 in bivariate analyses using Chi-2 test
  3. aIncludes Complementary Universal Health Insurance (CMU, which is free insurance for low-income persons) and State Medical Assistance (AME, which is free insurance for low-income irregular migrants)
  4. bCountries with a low level of HCV endemicity: Europe, America, Caribbean; countries with an intermediate or high level of endemicity: Africa, Middle-East, Indian subcontinent, Asia, Pacific Islands
  5. cCountries with a low level of HBV endemicity: Northern and Western Europe, North America, Pacific Islands; countries with an intermediate level of endemicity: French Overseas administrative areas, Eastern and Southern Europe, North Africa, Middle-East, Indian subcontinent, South America; countries with a high level of endemicity: Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia
  6. dMycosis are excluded
  7. The distributions are significantly different for numbers in bold