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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics according to the study period

From: Effect of ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion on the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections and mechanical complications

  Early term
Non-guided
Late term
Ultrasound-guided
P-value
Number of patients 235 160
Median age (range)* 59 (19–85) 53 (20–78) < 0.0001
Gender (female/male)* 122/133 101/59 0.0018
Insertion duration*, median (range) [days] 26 (2–126) 18 (2–104) < 0.0001
Charlson comorbidity index 2.9 (0–11) 2.8 (0–8) 0.681
Hospitalization days 90 (1–318) 66 (3–308) 0.0002
Total observation [catheter days] 7210 3231
Site direction (%) Right 76.3 78.1 0.599
Left 17.5 14.6
Insertion site (%) Internal jugular 22.8 32.5 < 0.0001
Subclavian* 44.7 19.9
Femoral 31.1 33.8
Others 0.4 13.2
Number of lumens (%) Single 2.2 9.3 0.0348
Double* 86.4 68.2
Triple 8.3 15.2
Others 1.3 0.7
Usage of PICC*, among all cases (%) 0.4 13.2 0.0003
  1. *P < 0.05