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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of risk factors for carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection in patients infected with K. pneumoniae

From: Risk factors and survival of patients infected with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a KPC endemic setting: a case-control and cohort study

Variables Carbapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae n = 289 Carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae n = 49 Total K. pneumoniae infections n = 338 OR (95% CI)
n % n % n %  
Sociodemographics
 Age in years (median, IQR) 67 (51–77) 64 (55–74) 67 (51–76) 0.99 (0.97–1.01)
 Male sex 164 56.75 34 69.39 198 58.58 1.73 (0.90–3.31)
 Transfer from another facility 111 38.41 18 36.73 129 38.17 0.93 (0.50–1.74)
Clinical characteristics
 Time at risk in days (median, IQR) 3 (1–12) 10 (1–26) 3 (1–14) 1.03 (1.01–1.05)
 ICU hospitalization 38 13.15 13 26.53 51 15.09 2.38 (1.16–4.90)
 Healthcare associated infection 118 40.83 30 61.22 148 43.79 2.28 (1.23–4.25)
Invasive devices 143 49.48 38 77.55 181 53.55 3.5 (1.73–7.17)
 Urinary catheter 69 23.88 21 42.86 90 26.63 2.39 (1.28–4.47)
 Central venous catheter 53 18.34 21 42.86 74 21.89 3.33 (1.77–6.32)
 Enteral nutrition 30 10.38 11 22.45 41 12.13 2.49 (1.16–5.39)
 Mechanical ventilation 25 8.65 11 22.45 36 10.65 3.05 (1.40–6.71)
Medical history (previous year)
 Surgery 105 36.33 23 46.94 128 37.87 1.55 (0.84–2.85)
Medical history (previous 6 months)
 Hospitalization 171 59.17 33 67.35 204 60.36 1.42 (0.75–2.70)
 ICU stay 31 10.73 8 16.33 39 11.54 1.62 (0.70–3.77)
 Dialysis 37 12.80 11 22.45 48 14.20 1.97 (0.93–4.19)
Previous use of antibiotics 186 64.36 43 87.76 229 67.75 2.59 (1.26–5.31)
 Piperacilin/Tazobactam 90 31.14 17 34.69 107 31.66 1.17 (0.62–2.22)
 Aztreonam 5 1.73 2 4.08 7 2.07 2.41 (0.45–12.82)
 Cefepime 4 1.38 7 14.29 11 3.25 11.87 (3.33–42.30)
 Meropenem 22 7.61 20 40.81 42 12.43 8.36 (4.08–17.13)
 Ciprofloxacin 36 12.46 14 28.57 50 14.79 2.81 (1.38–5.72)
 Amikacina 9 3.11 6 12.24 15 4.44 4.34 (1.47–12.80)
Previous days of antibiotic use(number of days) (median, IQR)
 Piperacillin/Tazobactam 7 4–10 6.5 4–9.5 7 4–10 1.17 (0.62–2.22)
 Aztreonam 4 3–6 8.5 8–9 6 3–8 1.25 (0.97–1.61)
 Cefepime 7.5 4–11.5 8 7–12 8 7–12 1.27 (1.09–1.49)
 Meropenem 9 5–12 13.5 8–18.5 11 6–14 1.20 (1.13–1.28)
 Ciprofloxacin 6 4–16 7 2.5–10 6.5 4–13 1.03 (0.97–1.10)
 Amikacina 4 1–7 9.5 7–20 7 1–12 1.18 (1.04–1.33)
Comorbidities 276 95.50 48 97.96 324 95.86  
 Charlson Index (median, IQR) 4 (2–6) 4 (3–5) 4 (2–6) 1.002 (0.88–1.13)
 Cardiovascular disease 137 47.40 23 46.94 160 47.34 0.98 (0.53–1.80)
 Diabetes Mellitus 91 31.49 12 24.49 103 30.47 0.71 (0.35–1.41)
 Cancer 52 17.99 10 20.41 62 18.34 1.17 (0.55–2.49)
 Renal chronic disease 53 18.34 5 10.20 58 17.16 0.51 (0.19–1.34)
 COPD 50 17.30 7 14.29 57 16.86 0.80 (0.34–1.87)
  1. Significant at α < 0.05
  2. ICU Intensive Care Unit, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  3. Included in the multivariable analysis (p < 0.25)