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Table 3 Antimicrobial resistance to commonly used topical agents among bacterial isolates from patients with ophthalmic infections, London, 2009–2015. #One isolate was ‘intermediate’. Fusidic acid resistance increased significantly from secondary to tertiary care (p < 0.01). Chloramphenicol resistance increased significantly from primary to tertiary care (p < 0.01). ^ including Pseudomonas spp., Chryseobacterium spp. ~ including Pseudomonas spp. * including enterococci and all Gram-negative pathogens (except Neisseria spp. and Moraxella spp.) [14, 15]

From: Antibacterial resistance in ophthalmic infections: a multi-centre analysis across UK care settings

Antimicrobial Descriptor Care setting
Primary Secondary Tertiary
Chloramphenicol Intrinsically-resistant isolates^ (n) 5.6% (82) 7.8% (58) 27.2% (127)
Non-intrinsically resistant isolates undergoing susceptibility testing (n) 94.0% (1301) 91.7% (632) 71.2% (242)
Non-intrinsically resistant isolates found to be resistant (n) 7.0% (91) 8.7% (55) 12.8% (31)
Overall antimicrobial resistance 11.8% 15.1% 33.8%
Moxifloxacin Intrinsically-resistant isolates~ (n) 5.5% (81) 7.6% (57) 25.5% (118)
Non-intrinsically resistant isolates undergoing susceptibility testing (n) 12.5% (173) 7.2% (50) 10.9% (38)
Non-intrinsically resistant isolates found to be resistant (n) 0% (0) 0% (0) 0% (0#)
Overall percentage resistance 5.5% 7.6% 25.5%
Fusidic acid Intrinsically-resistant isolates* (n) 46.9% (688) 49.7% (371) 50.3% (235)
Non-intrinsically resistant isolates undergoing susceptibility testing (n) 55.1% (429) 66.2% (249) 72.0% (167)
Non-intrinsically resistant isolates found to be resistant (n) 8.9% (38) 11.2% (28) 23.4% (39)
Overall percentage resistance 49.6% 53.4% 58.7%