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Table 3 Clinical and behavioral characteristics of the study participants (N = 400)

From: Factors associated with isoniazid resistant tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus positive patients in Swaziland: a case-control study

Characteristics HR-TB or PDR-TB
(n = 120)
MDR-TB
(n = 77)
DS-TB
(n = 203)
 
  n (%) n (%) n (%) P-value
Case definition     < 0.0001*
 New 72 (60.0) 39 (50.6) 187 (92.1)  
 Recurrence 21 (17.5) 26 (33.8) 16 (7.9)  
 Retreatment after failure 26 (21.7) 11 (14.3) 0 (0)  
 Retreatment after lost to follow-up 1 (0.8) 1 (1.3) 0 (0)  
History of TB contact 41 (34.2) 24 (31.2) 52 (25.6) 0.242
Median length of time (days) from diagnosis to treatment initiation (IQR) 50 (31) 17 (57) 1 (4) < 0.0001*
IPT exposure 12 (10.0) 4 (5.2) 16 (7.9) 0.477
On ART 120 (100) 75 (97.4) 196 (96.6) 0.129
ART started before current TB episode 78 (65.0) 45 (58.4) 89 (43.8) 0.001*
CD4 count at TB diagnosis     0.680
 0–200 74 (61.7) 55 (71.4) 125 (61.6)  
  > 200–350 18 (15.0) 11 (14.3) 35 (17.2)  
  > 350–500 16 (13.3) 5 (6.5) 21 (10.3)  
  > 500 12 (10.0) 6 (7.8) 22 (10.8)  
Diabetes 6 (5.0) 2 (2.6) 1 (0.5) 0.030*
TB treatment non-adherence 11 (22.4) 19 (30.6) 27 (13.3) 0.005*
ART non-adherence 26 (21.7) 17 (22.4) 26 (13.3) 0.078
Smoking Status     0.051
 Never 74 (61.7) 60 (77.9) 152 (74.9)  
 Previous 29 (24.2) 13 (16.9) 35 (17.2)  
 Current 17 (14.2) 4 (5.2) 16 (7.9)  
Heavy alcohol drinking     0.046*
 Never 66 (55.0) 49 (63.6) 131 (64.5)  
 Previous 27 (22.5) 19 (24.7) 51 (25.1)  
 Current 27 (22.5) 9 (11.7) 21 (10.3)  
History of imprisonment 13 (10.8) 8 (10.4) 24 (11.8) 0.930
  1. HR-TB Isoniazid mono-resistant tuberculosis, PDR-TB poly drug-resistant tuberculosis; MDR-TB multi drug-resistant tuberculosis, DS-TB drug-susceptible tuberculosis, IPT Isoniazid prophylaxis treatment, ART antiretroviral treatment, TB tuberculosis
  2. *p < 0.05