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Table 3 Comparison of profiles of tuberculosis patients categorized by cause of death using univariate and multivariate analysis

From: Clinical profiles of early and tuberculosis-related mortality in South Korea between 2015 and 2017: a cross-sectional study

Variables TB-related death (n = 944) Non-TB-related death (n = 2791) OR (95% CI) p-value aORa(95% CI) p-value
Age group
 ≤ 49 years 77 (8.2%) 127 (4.6%) 1   1  
 50–59 years 107 (11.3%) 258 (9.2%) 0.68 (0.48–0.98) 0.040 0.81 (0.52–1.26) 0.350
 60–69 years 118 (12.5%) 421 (15.1%) 0.46 (0.33–0.66) 0.000 0.86 (0.57–1.32) 0.498
 70–79 years 214 (22.7%) 844 (30.2%) 0.42 (0.30–0.57) 0.000 0.76 (0.51–1.14) 0.183
 80 years ≤ 428 (45.3%) 1141 (40.9%) 0.62 (0.46–0.84) 0.002 1.08 (0.74–1.60) 0.686
 Female 308 (32.6%) 886 (31.7%) 1.04 (0.89–1.22) 0.615 1.03 (0.83–1.28) 0.777
 Current smokerb 161 (17.1%) 271 (9.8%) 1.89 (1.52–2.34) 0.000 1.42 (1.05–1.92) 0.023
 Heavy drinker 116 (12.4%) 195 (7.1%) 0.51 (0.39–0.68) 0.000 0.94 (0.67–1.33) 0.730
 BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 441 (50.2%) 1001 (37.2%) 1.70 (1.46–1.98) 0.000 1.38 (1.16–1.64) 0.000
 Prior TB history 210 (22.4%) 467 (16.8%) 1.42 (1.19–1.71) 0.000 1.43 (1.14–1.79) 0.002
Comorbidities
 Cardiovascular disease 72 (7.7%) 290 (10.5%) 0.71 (0.55–0.93) 0.014 0.69 (0.50–0.95) 0.022
 Malignancy 79 (8.4%) 703 (25.3%) 0.27 (0.21–0.35) 0.000 0.35 (0.26–0.46) 0.000
 No reported illness 274 (29.2%) 504 (18.2%) 1.86 (1.57–2.21) 0.000 1.27 (1.03–1.56) 0.026
Diagnostic tests
 Cavitary disease on CXRc 335 (36.7%) 538 (20.1%) 2.31 (1.96–2.72) 0.001 1.43 (1.17–1.75) 0.001
 Bilateral disease on CXRd 516 (57.1%) 992 (38.1%) 2.17 (1.86–2.53) 0.009 1.66 (1.39–1.99) 0.000
 AFB smear test (+) 595 (64.7%) 1158 (42.5%) 2.48 (2.13–2.90) 0.000 1.85 (1.52–2.24) 0.000
 AFB culture test (+) 683 (77.8%) 1846 (69.9%) 1.51 (1.26–1.80) 0.000 1.14 (0.91–1.43) 0.246
Symptoms
 Cough 492 (52.1%) 1149 (41.2%) 1.55 (1.34–1.80) 0.000 1.32 (1.11–1.57) 0.002
 Dyspnea 349 (37.0%) 901 (32.3%) 1.23 (1.05–1.43) 0.009 1.18 (0.99–1.42) 0.072
 Hemoptysis 48 (5.1%) 84 (3.0%) 1.72 (1.20–2.48) 0.003 1.79 (1.17–2.73) 0.007
 Chest pain 32 (3.4%) 136 (4.9%) 0.68 (0.46–1.01) 0.058 0.67 (0.42–1.06) 0.086
  1. TB, tuberculosis; OR, odds ratio; aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; BMI, body mass index; CXR, chest x-ray; AFB, acid-fast bacillus
  2. % = % of cases without missing data
  3. aAll the variables listed in this table were used in the multivariate analysis
  4. b Never smoker was used as reference
  5. c Non-cavitary disease on chest X-ray was used as reference
  6. d Unilateral disease on chest X-ray was used as reference