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Table 4 Cox Proportional Hazard Model for identifying risk factors for incident TB

From: Incidence of tuberculosis among HIV infected individuals on long term antiretroviral therapy in private healthcare sector in Pune, Western India

Characteristics Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Hazard ratio
(95% CI)
p-value Adjusted Hazard ratio
(95% CI)
p-value
Age > 40 years (Ref: ≤ 40 years) 1.07 (0.794, 1.432) 0.668 1.01 (0.746, 1.375) 0.935
Male (Ref: Female) 1.36 (0.978, 1.877) 0.068 0.96 (0.616, 1.495) 0.855
Ever Tobacco user (Ref: not used tobacco) 1.90 (1.413, 2.560) < 0.0001 1.08 (0.737, 1.584) 0.690
Ever consumed Alcohol (Ref: not consume alcohol) 1.39 (1.036, 1.866) 0.028 1.10 (0.770, 1.572) 0.599
History of baseline prevalent TB (Ref: No baseline prevalent TB) 1.23 (0.909, 1.656) 0.181   
Haemoglobin at baseline ≤10 g/dl (n = 1592)(Ref: > 10 g/dl)a 1.80 (1.290, 2.504) 0.001   
Virologic failure on ART (VF)(Ref: Virologic success (VS)) 9.51 (7.078, 12.786) < 0.0001 3.05 (2.094, 4.454) < 0.0001
ART alone (Ref: ART plus IPT) 12.71 (5.217, 30.943) < 0.0001 8.24 (3.358, 20.204) < 0.0001
Pre ART CD4+ ≤ 200 cells/mm3(Ref: >  200 cells/mm3) 1.87 (1.326, 2.647) < 0.0001 1.18 (0.816, 1.714) 0.377
Pre ART CD4+ (Ref: > 500 cells/mm3)
  ≤ 50 6.87 (0.937, 50.321) 0.058   
 51–200 6.60 (0.921, 47.370) 0.060   
 201–500 3.79 (0.521, 27.596) 0.188   
Current/updated CD4+ (Ref: > 500 cells/mm3)
  ≤ 200 17.60 (10.783, 28.716) < 0.0001 6.62 (3.678, 11.915) < 0.0001
 201–350 4.19 (2.401, 7.313) < 0.0001 3.22 (1.808, 5.746) < 0.0001
 351–500 2.43 (1.297, 4.555) < 0.0001 2.05 (1.083, 3.888) 0.027
  1. ART antiretroviral therapy, IPT isoniazid preventive therapy, TB tuberculosis
  2. aHemoglobin data is not available for 312 patients, hence excluded from the multivariate analysis