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Table 1 Baseline information for the clinical trial population

From: Assessing the efficacy and safety of magnesium sulfate for management of autonomic nervous system dysregulation in Vietnamese children with severe hand foot and mouth disease

  Placebo (N = 12) MgSO4 (N = 14)
Demographic and clinical features
 Age (months) 21 (7, 57) 24 (9, 73)
 Sex (female) 6 (50) 9 (64)
 Weight (kg) 11 (7, 19) 11 (7, 20)
 Illness day at enrolment 3.5 (1.0, 6.0) 3.0 (2.0, 5.0)
 Fever (>  37.5 °C) 12 (100) 13 (93)
 Mouth ulcers present 10 (83) 11 (79)
 Skin lesions present 9 (75) 11 (79)
 Skin ANS featuresa 2 (17) 1 (7)
 Tachycardiab 2 (17) 1 (7)
 SBP (mmHg) 116 (105, 129) 113 (101, 134)
 DBP (mmHg) 61 (52, 73) 59 (47, 73)
 Stage of hypertension
  Stage1 4 (33) 11 (79)
  Stage2 8 (67) 3 (21)
 Tachypnea 5 (42) 6 (43)
 Irregular breathing 7 (58) 5 (36)
 Respiratory retractions 1 (8) 3 (21)
 Irritability 4 (33) 1 (7)
 Neurological abnormalitiesc 3 (25) 0 (0)
Laboratory investigations
 Arterial blood gases
  - pH 7.44 (7.40, 7.59) 7.41 (7.36, 7.48)
  - pCO2 (mmHg) 29.8 (18.6, 35.7) 33.3 (29.4, 40.1)
 Hb (g/dl) 11.8 (8.8, 15.2) 11.8 (6.4, 14.3)
 WBC (× 109/l) 10.2 (4.6, 15.5) 13.6 (5.5, 26.5)
 CK-MB (IU/l) 23.4 (10.4, 64.8) 25.4 (13.8, 48.1)
 Troponin I (pg/ml) 5 (0, 20) 5 (0, 27)
 Mg (mmol/l) 0.85 (0.70, 0.99) 0.88 (0.78, 0.98)
 Ca (mmol/l) 2.28 (1.69, 2.52) 2.31 (1.95, 2.42)
 Na (mmol/l) 131 (126, 134) 131 (125, 136)
 Creatinine (μmol/l) 26 (17, 52) 27 (18, 42)
 Blood sugar (mmol/l) 5.4 (4.0, 7.6) 5.7 (5.0, 8.1)
 Lab-confirmed EV infection 7 (58) 11 (78)
  EV-A71 positive 4 (33) 9 (64)
  Other EV positived 3 (25) 2 (14)
  1. Summary statistic is absolute count (%) for categorical variables and median (range) for continuous data
  2. SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, EV-A71 Enterovirus A71, EV Enterovirus
  3. aSkin manifestations of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation
  4. bTachycardia: Heart rate sustained > 150 beats/min, adjusted down by 10 for each 1 degree of fever above 37.0
  5. cMyoclonic jerks were noted in 2 cases, while limb tremor/ataxia and nystagmus were present in 1 case, all in the placebo group
  6. dIncludes 3 cases of Coxsackievirus (CV) A16, 1 case of CV A10, 1 case of CV –C, all other cases were negative