Skip to main content

Table 2 Univariate (Unadjusted) Associations with VRE infection: VRE Positive Compared to VRE Negative, Gram Negative, and VRE Negative, Sterile

From: VRE in cirrhotic patients

Variable VRE Positive (n = 65) VRE Negative, Gram Negative (n = 80) OR (95% CI) p-value VRE Negative, Sterile (n = 306) OR (95% CI) p-value
Age
  < 47 17 (26.1%) 15 (18.8%) 1.0 0.56 52 (17.0%) 1.0 0.30
 47–53 10 (15.4%) 12 (15.0%) 0.74 (0.25, 2.19)   61 (19.9%) 0.50 (0.21, 1.19)  
 54–60 18 (27.7%) 20 (25.0%) 0.79 (0.31, 2.04)   78 (25.5%) 0.71 (0.33, 1.49)  
  ≥ 60 20 (30.8%) 33 (41.2%) 0.53 (0.22, 1.30)   115 (37.6%) 0.53 (0.26, 1.10)  
Sex
 Male 24 (36.9%) 43 (53.7%) 1.0   205 (67.0%) 1.0  
 Female 41 (63.1%) 37 (46.3%) 1.99 (1.02, 3.87) 0.04 101 (33.0%) 3.47 (1.99, 6.05) < 0.001
Hispanic
 No 24 (36.9%) 33 (41.2%) 1.0   161 (52.6%) 1.0  
 Yes 41 (63.1%) 47 (58.8%) 1.20 (0.61, 2.35) 0.60 145 (47.4%) 1.90 (1.09, 3.29) 0.02
Albumin
  < 2.5 12 (18.5%) 21 (26.9%) 1.0   67 (22.0%) 1.0  
 2.5 or higher 53 (81.5%) 57 (73.1%) 1.63 (0.73, 3.63) 0.23 237 (78.0%) 1.25 (0.63, 2.47) 0.52
Neutropeniaa
  < 900 1 (1.5%) 1 (1.2%) 1.0   1 (0.3%) 1.0  
 900 or higher 64 (98.5%) 79 (98.8%) 0.81 (0.05, 13.21) 0.32 303 (99.7%) 0.21 (0.01, 3.42) 0.32
Child Pugh Score
 A 1 (1.5%) 9 (11.3%) 1.0 0.004 27 (8.8%) 1.0 < 0.001
 B 14 (21.5%) 28 (35.0%) 4.50 (0.52, 39.15)   127 (41.5%) 2.98 (0.38, 23.61)  
 C 50 (76.9%) 43 (53.7%0 10.47 (1.27, 85.96)   152 (49.7%) 8.88 (1.18, 67.04)  
Child Pugh Score (dichotomized)
 A or B 15 (23.1%) 37 (46.2%) 0.35 (0.17, 0.72) 0.003 154 (50.3%) 0.30 (0.16, 0.55) < 0.001
 C 50 (76.9%) 43 (53.8%) 1.0   152 (49.7%) 1.0  
MELD Scoreb
  ≤ 20 24 (36.9%) 46 (57.5%) 1.0 0.036 182 (59.9%) 1.0 0.0015
 21–30 22 (33.9%) 21 (26.2%) 2.01 (0.92, 4.36)   22 (27.2%) 2.11 (1.12, 3.99)  
  ≥ 31 19 (29.2%) 13 (16.3%) 2.80 (1.18, 6.63)   13 (16.0%) 3.35 (1.68, 6.66)  
Diabetes Mellitus        
 No 46 (70.8%) 51 (63.8%) 1.0   212 (69.3%) 1.0  
 Yes 19 (29.2%) 29 (36.2%) 0.73 (0.36, 1.47) 0.37 94 (30.7%) 0.93 (0.52, 1.68) 0.81
Ascites        
 No 5 (7.7%) 33 (41.3%) 1.0   91 (29.7%) 1.0  
 Yes 60 (92.3%) 47 (58.7%) 8.43 (3.05, 23.25) < 0.001 215 (70.3%) 5.08 (1.97, 13.06) < 0.001
History of GI Bleed        
 No 45 (69.2%) 58 (70.0%) 1.0   223 (72.9%) 1.0  
 Yes 20 (30.8%) 24 (30.0%) 1.04 (0.51, 2.11) 0.92 83 (27.1%) 1.19 (0.67, 2.14) 0.55
History of SBP
 No 53 (81.5%) 70 (87.5%) 1.0   283 (92.8%) 1.0  
 Yes 12 (18.5%) 10 (12.5%) 1.58 (0.64, 3.95) 0.32 22 (7.2%) 2.91 (1.36, 6.24) 0.009
Dialysis
 None 48 (73.9%) 69 (86.2%) 1.0 0.007 268 (87.6%) 1.0 < 0.001
 PD 0 (0%) 0 (0%)   1 (0.3%)  
 HD 8 (12.3%) 10 (12.5%) 1.15 (0.42, 3.13)   35 (11.4%) 1.28 (0.56, 2.92)  
 CRRT 9 (13.8%) 1 (1.3%) 12.94 (1.59, 105.50)   2 (0.7%) 25.12 (5.27, 119.88)  
Any Dialysis
 No 48 (73.8%) 69 (86.3%) 1.0   268 (87.6%) 1.0  
 Yes 17 (26.2%) 11 (13.7%0 2.22 (0.96, 5.16) 0.06 38 (12.4%) 2.50 (1.31, 4.78) 0.008
WBC
  < 4.2 10 (15.4%) 24 (30.0%) 1.0 0.09 81 (26.6%) 1.0 0.06
 4.2–5.7 12 (18.5%) 19 (23.7%) 1.52 (0.54, 4.26)   77 (25.2%) 1.26 (0.52, 3.09)  
 5.8–8.0 21 (32.3%) 19 (23.8%) 2.65 (1.01, 6.96)   65 (21.3%) 2.62 (1.15, 5.95)  
  ≥ 8.1 22 (33.8%) 18 (22.5%) 2.93 (1.12, 7.70)   82 (26.9%) 2.17 (0.97, 4.88)  
Creatinineb
  < 1.5 38 (58.5%) 58 (72.5%) 1.0   208 (68.2%) 1.0  
  ≥ 1.5 27 (41.5%) 22 (27.5%) 1.87 (0.93, 3.76) 0.08 97 (31.8%) 1.52 (0.88, 2.64) 0.14
SBP Prophylaxis
 None 44 (67.7%) 65 (81.2%) 1.0 0.13 253 (82.7%) 1.0 0.034
 TMP/SMX 6 (9.2%) 7 (8.8%) 1.27 (0.40, 4.02)   22 (7.2%) 1.57 (0.60, 4.09)  
 Fluoroquinolone 14 (21.5%) 8 (10.0%) 2.59 (1.00, 6.68)   31 (10.1%) 2.60 (1.28, 5.27)  
 Other 1 (1.5%) 0   0  
Any SBP Prophylaxisc
 No 44 (67.7%) 65 (81.2%) 1.0   253 (82.7%) 1.0  
 Yes 21 (32.3%) 15 (18.8%) 2.07 (0.96, 4.45) 0.06 53 (17.3%) 2.28 (1.25, 4.14) 0.009
Rifaximin
 No 39 (60.0%) 55 (68.7%) 1.0   229 (74.8%) 1.0  
 Yes 26 (40.0%) 25 (31.3%) 1.47 (0.74, 2.91) 0.27 77 (25.2%) 1.98 (1.13, 3.47) 0.02
Neomycin
 No 61 (93.8%) 73 (92.4%) 1.0   294 (96.1%) 1.0  
 Yes 4 (6.2%) 6 (7.6%) 0.80 (0.22, 2.96) 0.73 12 (3.9%) 1.61 (0.50, 5.15) 0.44
Any Antibioticd
 No 27 (41.5%) 40 (50.0%) 1.0   188 (61.4%) 1.0  
 Yes 38 (58.5%) 40 (50.0%) 1.41 (0.73, 2.72) 0.31 118 (38.6%) 2.24 (1.30, 3.86) 0.003
Etiology
 ETOH 19 (29.2%) 26 (32.5%) 1.0 0.90 106 (34.6%) 1.0 0.21
 Hep B/C 23 (35.4%) 28 (35.0%) 1.12 (0.50, 2.52)   125 (40.9%) 1.03 (0.53, 1.99)  
 Other 23 (35.4%) 26 (32.5%) 1.21 (0.54, 2.74)   75 (24.5%) 1.71 (0.87, 3.36)  
  1. aNeutropenia comparison to VRE negative, gram negative: p-value by exact logistic regression
  2. bMissing in 1 VRE negative, sterile subject
  3. cIncludes TMP/SMX, fluoroquinolone, other prophylactic treatment
  4. dIncludes SBP prophylaxis, rifaximin, neomycin