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Table 1 Study groups characteristics

From: Long-lasting alterations in adipose tissue density and adiponectin production in people living with HIV after thymidine analogues exposure

  Without exposure to TA and/or ddI (n = 397) With exposure to TA and/or ddI (n = 451) p-value
Age, mean (sd) 46.1 (10.5) 55.2 (10.2) < 0.0001
Sex, male, n (%) 361 (90.9) 373 (82.7) 0.0006
Origin, n (%)    0.0497
 Scandinavian 274 (70.3) 343 (76.9)  
 Other EU 49 (12.6) 44 (9.9)  
 Middle East and Indian subcontinent 13 (3.3) 5 (1.1)  
 Other 54 (13.8) 54 (12.1)  
BMI Categories, n (%)    0.4838
 <18.5 9 (2.3) 11 (2.5)  
 18.5–24.9 211 (53.3) 232 (51.8)  
 25–29.9 145 (36.6) 156 (34.8)  
 30 31 (7.8) 49 (10.9)  
Smoking status, n (%)    < 0.0001
 Never smoker 162 (41.8) 136 (30.8)  
 Current smoker 119 (30.7) 112 (25.3)  
 Former smoker 107 (27.6) 194 (43.9)  
Physical activity, n (%)    0.0709
 Very inactive 36 (9.6) 38 (8.8)  
 Moderately inactive 117 (31.1) 161 (37.4)  
 Moderately active 161 (42.8) 184 (42.8)  
 Very active 62 (16.5) 47 (10.9)  
Exposure to thymidine analogues and didanosine, n (%)   
 Prior exposure 445 (98.6)  
 Current exposure 6 (1.4)  
Mode of HIV transmission, n (%)    0.0032
 Heterosexual 64 (16.2) 100 (22.4)  
 IDU 5 (1.3) 5 (1.1)  
 MSM 311 (78.9) 306 (68.6)  
 Other 14 (3.6) 35 (7.8)  
CD4 nadir < 200 cells, n (%) 89 (23.2) 258 (57.8) < 0.0001
Viral load < 50, n (%) 369 (93.9) 436 (97.1) 0.0357
Current cART, n (%) 397 (100.0) 449 (99.8) 1
VAT area, cm2, median [iqr] 62.3 [32.2, 109.2] 106.5 [55.8, 166.5] < 0.0001
VAT density, HU, median [iqr] -108.9 [− 113.6, − 104.9] − 113.9 [− 115.7, − 109.7] < 0.0001
SAT, cm2,median [iqr] 137.9 [88.6, 198.2] 126.2 [81.2, 177.2] 0.0768
SAT density, HU, median [iqr] − 110.4 [− 112.7, − 106.0] −111.1 [− 113.7, − 108.1] 0.0002
Adiponectin, μg/ml, median [iqr] 11.8 [8.7, 14.7] 11.5 [8.1, 16.3] 0.4822
Low adiponectin, n (%) 74 (23.3) 105 (28.8) 0.1173
  1. Abbreviations: visceral adipose tissue, VAT; subcutaneous adipose tissue, SAT; body mass index, BMI; standard deviations, SD; intravenous drug use, IDU; male-to-male sex, MSM, combined antiretroviral therapy, cART thymidine nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, TA; Hounsfield units, HU