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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted risk factors for nonadherence to ART among a cohort of mothers and NVP among a cohort of infants in South Africa followed in 2012–2014 identified with cox proportional hazards model (unweighted)

From: Longitudinal adherence to maternal antiretroviral therapy and infant Nevirapine prophylaxis from 6 weeks to 18 months postpartum amongst a cohort of mothers and infants in South Africa

Mothers
N = 1322a
Nonadherence
Cox proportional hazard model
Characteristic Unadjusted (95% CI) p value Adjusted (95% CI) p value
hazard ratio hazard ratio
Maternal age
 35+ years 1    1   
 25–34 years 1.21 0.96–1.54 0.111 1.21 0.95–1.54 0.123
 16–24 years 1.93 1.46–2.53 0.000 1.87 1.42–2.47 0.000
Delivery care location
 Hospital/clinic 1    1   
 Home/other 1.61 1.03–2.53 0.036 1.87 1.19–2.94 0.007
CD4 result received
 CD4 test done and result received 1    1   
 CD4 test not done 1.43 0.88–2.34 0.150 1.34 0.82–2.20 0.242
 CD4 test done, result not received 1.33 1.10–1.62 0.004 1.28 1.06–1.57 0.012
 Do not know if had CD4 test 2.56 1.73–3.80 0.000 2.15 1.44–3.20 0.000
HIV status disclosed to family and/or friends
 Yes 1    1   
 No 1.69 1.33–2.14 0.000 1.67 1.31–2.12 0.000
Planned pregnancy
 Yes 1    1   
 No 1.25 1.04–1.51 0.017 1.18 0.98–1.42 0.082
 No response 2.14 0.30–15.27 0.448 2.54 0.35–18.28 0.356
Initiated ART after delivery
 No 1    1   
 Yes 1.66 1.36–2.03 0.000 1.61 1.31–1.96 0.000
 Don’t know/Chose not to answer 1.15 0.83–1.59 0.404 1.14 0.82–1.58 0.425
Infants
N = 1231b
Nonadherence
Cox proportional hazard model
Characteristic Unadjusted 95% CI p-value Adjusted 95% CI p-value
hazard ratio hazard ratio
Province
 Free State 1    1   
 Limpopo 1.30 0.35–4.86 0.693 1.31 0.35–4.89 0.689
 Eastern Cape 2.97 1.01–8.68 0.047 2.97 1.01–8.73 0.048
 Northern Cape 5.27 1.92–14.44 0.001 5.16 1.86–14.28 0.002
 Gauteng 1.23 0.40–3.75 0.719 1.25 0.41–3.82 0.701
 KwaZulu Natal 1.97 0.68–5.66 0.210 2.02 0.70–5.85 0.192
 Mpumalanga 2.58 0.89–7.42 0.079 2.48 0.86–7.17 0.093
 Northwest 4.86 1.85–12.79 0.001 4.81 1.82–12.72 0.002
 Western Cape 4.28 1.48–12.32 0.007 3.95 1.37–11.41 0.011
Maternal parity
 One child 1    1   
 2–3 children 1.26 0.74–2.13 0.394 1.07 0.62–1.82 0.817
 4+ children 1.68 0.90–3.16 0.106 1.45 0.76–2.75 0.259
Mother ever heard of PMTCT
 Yes 1    1   
 No 1.76 1.01–3.06 0.044 1.70 0.96–3.00 0.068
Mother knows partner’s HIV status
 Yes 1    1   
 No 1.48 0.98–2.24 0.061 1.46 0.97–2.21 0.072
  1. aMothers were included in survival analysis if they were on ART at 6 weeks and had information about ART adherence at any follow-up visit
  2. bInfants were included in survival analysis if they were on NVP at birth and had information about NVP adherence at any follow-up visit