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Table 2 Effectiveness or efficacy (95% CI) of PCVs against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) according to different study designs, among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children

From: Effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination against invasive pneumococcal disease among children with and those without HIV infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Pneumococcal serotypes HIV status Study design
Randomized trial Case-control Pre-post
All types HI 47.9 (30.7,60.9) 22.6(−80.0, 66.8) NA
HUI 38.0(−0.1, 61.7) 43.0 (12.2, 63.0) NA
Vaccine types HI 51.0 (25.9, 67.7) 7.7(−66.7, 48.9) NA
HUI 77.3 (50.9, 89.5) 80.0 (70.4, 86.5) NA
Non-vaccine types HI −20.0(− 158, 44.2) −402.8(−1856, −29.2)a 21.3(−9.5, 43.5)
HUI − 300(− 8776, 82.0) −21.1(− 147.8, 40.9) −12.5(−46.5,13.6)b
  1. NA Meta-analysis was not applicable due to high heterogeneity, HI HIV-infected, HUI HIV-uninfected
  2. aFor children younger than 2.5 years
  3. bFor PCV7 and PCV13, but not for other vaccines