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Table 3 Prevalence of HCV according to different characteristics among participants

From: Risk factors for viral hepatitis C infection in Rwanda: results from a nationwide screening program

Characteristics Number of participants HCV positive(%) Bivariate analysis Multi-variable analysis
OR (95%CI) P-value OR (95%CI) P-value
Gender(N = 325,078)
 Female 223,627 15,431 (6.9) 1    1   
 Male 101,451 6651 (6.6) 0.95 (0.92–0.98) < 0.001 1.06 (1.03–1.10) < 0.001
Age group(N = 316,336)
  < 35 years old 91,922 3396 (3.7) 1    1   
 35–44 years old 79,337 3427 (4.3) 1.18 (1.12–1.24) < 0.001 1.11 (1.05–1.17) < 0.001
 45–54 years old 61,733 3516 (5.7) 1.57 (1.50–1.65) < 0.001 1.30 (1.23–1.37) < 0.001
 55–64 years old 50,379 4674 (9.3) 2.67 (2.55–2.79) < 0.001 2.11 (2.00–2.22) < 0.001
 65 years old and above 32,965 6458 (19.6) 6.35 (6.08–6.64) < 0.001 4.86 (4.62–5.11) < 0.001
Marital status (N = 318,211)
 Single 28,105 1030 (3.7) 1    1   
 Married 246,593 15,266 (6.2) 1.74 (1.63–1.85) < 0.001 1.152 (1.07–1.24) < 0.001
 Widow, separated and divorced 43,513 4866 (11.2) 3.31 (3.09–3.55) < 0.001 1.36 (1.26–1.47) < 0.001
Ubudehe category(N = 318,784)
 Category 1 49,767 4462 (9.0) 1    1   
 Category 2 119,347 8034 (6.7) 0.73 (0.71–0.76) < 0.001 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 0.112
 Category 3 and 4 148,686 9114 (6.1) 0.66 (0.64–0.69) < 0.001 0.92 (0.88–0.96) < 0.001
Health Insurance(N = 322,856)
 Mutuelle 302,152 21,095 (7.0) 1    1   
 RAMA 14,673 515 (3.5) 0.49 (0.44–0.53) < 0.001 0.775 (0.70–0.85) < 0.001
 MMI 2570 78 (3.0) 0.42 (0.33–0.52) < 0.001 0.804 (0.63–1.02) 0.08
 Other private insurances 3436 218 (6.3) 0.90 (0.78–1.03) 0.12 1.06 (0.91–1.23) 0.47
Province of screening(N = 313,945)
 North 65,804 3313 (5.0) 1    1   
 West 89,767 5277 (5.9) 1.18 (1.13–1.23) < 0.001 1.19 (1.14–1.25) < 0.001
 South 48,976 5880 (12.0) 2.57 (2.46–2.69) < 0.001 1.98 (1.88–2.08) < 0.001
 East 109,398 7264 (6.6) 1.34 (1.40–1.50) < 0.001 1.37 (1.31–1.43) < 0.001
Suffering from Diabetes(N = 325,829)
 No 323,971 21,961 (6.8) 1.00      
 Yes 1858 182 (9.8) 1.49 (1.28–1.74) < 0.001    
Suffering from HBP (N = 325,834)
 No 316,372 21,054 (6.7) 1.00    1.00   
 Yes 9462 1090 (11.5) 1.83 (1.71–1.95) < 0.001 1.22 (1.13–1.31) < 0.001
Suffering from CRF(N = 325,833)
 No 321,698 21,692 (6.7) 1.00    1.00   
 Yes 4135 452 (10.9) 1.68 (1.54–1.87) < 0.001 1.29 (1.16–1.44) < 0.001
Suffering from Cancer (N = 325,804)
 No 325,228 22,079 (6.8) 1.00      
 Yes 513 63 (10.9) 1.69 (1.30–2.19) < 0.001    
HIV status (N = 325,816)
 Negative 319,234 21,673 (6.8) 1.00    1   
 Yes 6582 470 (7.1) 1.06 (0.96–1.16) 0.26 1.08 (1.05–1.32) 0.001
Ever had TBC(N = 325,822)
 No 325,484 22,108 (6.8) 1.00      
 Yes 338 36 (10.7) 1.636 (1.16–2.31) 0.005    
Ever been operated(N = 325,816)
 No 307,980 20,916 (6.8) 1.00      
 Yes 17,836 1225 (6.9) 1.01 (0.95–1.07) 0.69    
Ever been transfused(N = 325,825)
 No 320,488 21,691 (6.8) 1.00      
 Yes 5337 452 (8.5) 1.28 (1.16–1.41) < 0.001    
Traditional operation and scarifications (N = 325,555)
 No 271,590 18,047 (6.6) 1.00    1.00   
 Yes 53,965 4089 (7.6) 1.15 (1.11–1.19) < 0.001 1.09 (1.05–1.14) < 0.001
Viral Hepatitis in the family(N = 325,785)
 No 319,616 21,609 (6.8) 1.00    1.00   
 Yes 6169 531 (8.6) 1.30 (1.19–1.42) < 0.001 1.27 (1.15–1.40) < 0.001
Interaction Age_HBP(N = 326,263)
  < 35 years old 317,891 21,669 (6.4) 1    1   
 35–44 years old 1418 80 (5.6) 0.84 (0.67–1.05) 0.12 1.14 (0.80–1.61) 0.46
 45–54 years old 1880 111 (5.9) 0.88 (0.73–1.07) 0.19 1.27 (1.01–1.61) 0.05
 55–64 years old 2606 276 (10.6) 1.66 (1.46–1.83) < 0.001 1.04 (0.85–1.27) 0.71
 65 years old and above 2468 574 (22.2) 3.99 (3.62–4.39) < 0.001 1.18 (1.06–1.30) 0.002
Interaction Age _CRF(N = 326,263)
  < 35 years old 322,909 21,788 (3.7) 1    1   
 35–44 years old 767 48 (6.3) 0.13 (0.09–0.20) < 0.001 1.32 (0.97–1.81) 0.08
 45–54 years old 765 56 (7.3) 0.21 (0.15–0.29) < 0.001 1.38 (1.01–1.61) 0.03
 55–64 years old 1069 129 (12.1) 0.25 (0.18–0.34) < 0.001 1.26 (1.04–1.54) 0.02
 65 years old and above 753 183 (24.3) 0.43 (0.33–0.55) < 0.001 1.24 (1.03–1.50) 0.02
Interaction Age _HIV(N = 326,263)
  < 35 years old 321,031 21,801 (6.8) 1    1   
 35–44 years old 1940 119 (6.1) 1.00 (0.80–1.26) 0.97 1.36 (1.12–1.65) 0.00
 45–54 years old 1920 101 (5.3) 0.76 (0.62–0.93) 0.01 0.89 (0.73–1.10) 0.29
 55–64 years old 1023 92 (9.0) 1.36 (1.09–1.68) 0.01 0.93 (0.75–1.16) 0.53
 65 years old and above 349 70 (20.1) 3.44 (2.65–4.48) < 0.001 1.01 (0.77–1.32) 0.94