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Table 4 Risk factors for death, hospitalization, and intensive-care unit (ICU) admission in influenza infected women 15–45 years old in the secondary and sensitivity analyses

From: Pregnancy as a risk factor for severe influenza infection: an individual participant data meta-analysis

  Death Hospital admission ICU admission
Variable Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p-value Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p-value Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
Obesity 1.72 (1.17–2. 52) 0.005 1.49 (1.15–1.93) 0.002 2.93 (1.99–4.31) < 0.001
Smoking 1.84 (1.04–3.25) 0.036 0.93 (0.71–1.22) 0.60 1.56 (0.81–3.00) 0.18
Chronic respiratory 0.92 (0.61–1.37) 0.67 2.30 (1.92–2.75) < 0.001 1.20 (0.96–1.49) 0.10
Sensitivity Analysis
 Pregnancy (core modelj) 1.00 (0.75–1.34) 1.00 6.80 (6.02–7.68) < 0.001 0.57 (0.48–0.69) < 0.001
 Pregnancy (core model including obesity) 0.99 (0.71–1.38)a 0.93 6.83 (6.05–7.71) d < 0.001 0.91 (0.66–1.25)g 0.56
 Pregnancy (core model including Smoking) 1.62 (1.03–2.56) b 0.038 7.86 (6.94–8.90) e < 0.001 0.59 (0.35–0.99) h 0.047
 Pregnancy (core model including chronic respiratory) 0.99 (0.74–1.32)c 0.93 6.40 (5.58–7.33) f < 0.001 0.57 (0.47–0.68) i < 0.001
  1. a18542, 21 studies, b23064, 7 studies, c26948, 23 studies
  2. d17505, 7 studies, e22846, 4 studies, f23438, 6 studies
  3. g 2087, 20 studies, h1069, 11 studies, i5683, 23 studies
  4. jVariables included in the core model were age, antiviral use, vaccination (with the exception of ICU admission), cardio-respiratory illness, diabetes, and immunosuppression
  5. All variables and figures in bold are indeed statistically significant