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Table 3 Risk factors for death, hospitalization, and ICU admission in influenza infected women 15–45 years old (core model)

From: Pregnancy as a risk factor for severe influenza infection: an individual participant data meta-analysis

Variable Univariate analysis Multivariable analysisd
Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value Cases (studies) included Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
Deatha
 Age (per 5-year increase) 1.24 (1.19–1.29) < 0.001 35,591 (32) 1.19 (1.12–1.26) < 0.001
 Pregnancy 0.66 (0.54–0.81) < 0.001 35,591 (32) 1.00 (0.75–1.34) 0.99
 Antiviral (yes) 0.77 (0.63–0.96) 0.017 32,652 (31) 0.67 (0.49–0.90) 0.009
 Vaccination 0.50 (0.32–0.78) 0.002 31,342 (26) 0.41 (0.25–0.68) < 0.001
 Cardio-respiratory 1.41 (1.11–1.81) 0.006 32,167 (31) 1.30 (0.93–1.81) 0.12
 Diabetes mellitus 2.06 (1.54–2.75) < 0.001 32,442 (31) 1.67 (1.10–2.51) 0.015
 Immunosuppressione 2.37 (1.77–3.18) < 0.001 31,995 (29) 2.35 (1.56–3.55) < 0.001
Hospitalizationb
 Age (per 5-year increase) 1.08 (1.06–1.10) < 0.001 27,972 (9) 1.12 (1.09–1.15) < 0.001
 Pregnancy 5.33 (4.79–5.94) < 0.001 27,972 (9) 6.80 (6.02–7.68) < 0.001
 Antiviral (yes) 0.96 (0.86–1.07) 0.45 25,814 (9) 1.01 (0.89–1.14) 0.89
 Vaccination 0.88 (0.75–1.03) 0.11 27,225 (8) 0.91 (0.76–1.09) 0.31
 Cardio-respiratory 2.24 (1.91–2.62) < 0.001 26,227 (9) 2.28 (1.91–2.73) < 0.001
 Diabetes 1.00 (0.78–1.29) 0.99 25,185 (8) 0.92 (0.69–1.23) 0.59
 Immunosuppressione 1.16 (0.82–1.65) 0.41 25,214 (9) 1.05 (0.69–1.60) 0.83
ICUc Admissionc
 Age (per 5-year increase) 1.16 (1.13–1.20) < 0.001 8836 (26) 1.07 (1.03–1.11) 0.003
 Pregnancy 0.65 (0.57–0.74) < 0.001 8836 (26) 0.57 (0.48–0.69) < 0.001
 Antiviral (yes) 1.73 (1.48–2.01) < 0.001 7769 (26) 1.96 (1.63–2.35) < 0.001
 Cardio-respiratory 1.39 (1.19–1.63) < 0.001 7152 (26) 1.22 (1.01–1.48) 0.043
 Diabetes 1.81 (1.48–2.21) < 0.001 8019 (26) 1.58 (1.26–1.99) < 0.001
 Immunosuppressione 1.45 (1.18–1.78) < 0.001 7516 (24) 1.09 (0.86–1.39) 0.48
  1. aMultivariable participants count: 26964, 24 studies, bMultivariable participants count: 23450, 7 studies, cMultivariable participants count: 5766, 24 studies
  2. dAll variables listed were included in each of the three (death, hospitalization, or ICU admission) multivariable models
  3. e‘Immunosuppression’ includes participants with HIV positivity
  4. All variables and figures in bold are indeed statistically significant