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Table 2 Comparison of pregnant versus non-pregnant participants

From: Pregnancy as a risk factor for severe influenza infection: an individual participant data meta-analysis

  Participant characteristics
Core model
  Pregnant
(n = 4379, 12.0%)
Non-pregnant
(n = 32,119, 88.0%)
Risk estimate (95% CI)
 Mean age (years), SD 26.7 ± 6.1 29.2 ± 8.7 MD 2.43 (2.23–2.64)
 Antiviral treatment 2073 (55.4%) 8452 (28.7%) OR 3.09 (2.88–3.31)
 Vaccinateda 367 (12.1%) 2221 (7.8%) OR 1.62 (1.44–1.82)
 Diabetes mellitus 150 (3.9%) 1094 (3.8%) OR 1.03 (0.86–1.22)
 Cardio-respiratory 287 (7.7%) 2186 (7.5%) OR 1.03 (0.91–1.18)
 Immunosuppressionc 74 (2.0%) 814 (2.8%) OR 0.69 (0.54–0.87)
Secondary model
 Obesity 107 (4.3%) 963 (4.7%) OR 0.92 (0.75–1.13)
 Smoking 77 (4.6%) 762 (3.3%) OR 1.43 (1.12–1.81)
 Chronic respiratoryb 251 (6.9%) 1907 (6.6%) OR 1.05 (0.91–1.20)
  1. Abbreviations: SD Standard deviation, MD Mean difference, OR Odds ratio
  2. aVaccination status not included in the core model for the outcome ICU admission given > 20% missing data
  3. b‘Chronic respiratory’ replaced ‘cardio-respiratory’ from the core model in the secondary analysis
  4. c‘Immunosuppression’ includes participants with HIV positivity
  5. All variables and figures in bold are indeed statistically significant